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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 272.

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bank, of the Leh river, a muddy, sluggish stream, flowing between
precipitous banks, and separating the town from the cantonment;
distant by rail 1,443 miles from Calcutta, 1,479 from Bombay, and
9o8 from Karachi. The population, including cantonments, at the
last three enumerations was : (1881) 52,975, (1891) 73,795, and (19o1)
87,688, including 4o,807 Muhammadans, 33,227 Hindus, 6,302 Sikhs,
6,278 Christians, and 1,oo8 Jains. The present town is of quite
modern origin; but Sir Alexander Cunningham identified certain ruins
on the site of the cantonment with the ancient city of Gajipur or
Gajnipur, the capital of the Bhatti tribe in the ages preceding the
Christian era. Graeco-Bactrian coins, together with ancient bricks,
occur over an area of 2 square miles. Known within historical times
as Fatehpur Baori, Rawalpindi fell into decay during one of the
Mongol invasions in the fourteenth century. Jhanda Khan, a Gakhar
chief, restored the town and gave it its present name. Sardar Milka
Singh, a Sikh adventurer, occupied it in 1765, and invited traders from
the neighbouring commercial centres of Jhelum and Shahpur to settle
in his territory. Early in the nineteenth century Rawalpindi became
for a time the refuge of Shah Shuja, the exiled king of Kabul, and of
his brother Shah Zaman. The present native infantry lines mark the
site of a battle fought by the Gakhars under their famous chief Sultan
Mukarrab Khan in the middle of the eighteenth century. It was at
Rawalpindi that, on March 14, 1849, the Sikh army under Chattar
Singh and Sher Singh finally laid down their arms after the battle of
(iujrat. On the introduction of British rule, Rawalpindi became the
site of a cantonment, and shortly afterwards the head-quarters of
a Division; while its connexion with the main railway system by the
extension of the North-Western Railway to Peshawar immensely de-
veloped both its size and commercial importance. The municipality
was created in 1867. The income and expenditure during the ten
years ending 1902-3 averaged 2-1 lakhs. In 1903-4 the income and
expenditure were 1-8 lakhs and 2-1 lakhs respectively. The chief item
of income was octroi (1-6 lakhs) ; and the expenditure included
administration (Rs. 35,000), conservancy (RS. 2 7,ooo), hospitals and
dispensaries (Rs. 25,000), public works (Rs. 9,ooo), and public safety
(Rs. 17,ooo). The cantonment, with a population in 1901 of 40,611,
is the most important in India. It contains one battery of horse and
one of field artillery, one mountain battery, one company of garrison
artillery, and one ammunition column of field artillery; one regiment
of British and one of Native cavalry; two of British and two of Native
infantry; and two companies of sappers and miners, with a balloon
section. It is the winter head-quarters of the Northern Command,
and of the Rawalpindi military division. An arsenal was established
here in 1883. The income and expenditure from cantonment funds
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