in the rains, and jowdr and gram at other times, The rich eat rice
and wheat. A new class of wheat has lately been introduced, known
as much or safed (' white') wheat, but it is considered of inferior quality
to the ordinary or kathia wheat. Advances of grain and cash are not
made in ordinary years, but are freely given in times of scarcity.
Tahsil. Total Cultivated. Irrigated cultivable forests.
area. (acres), waste,
Teonthar 816 308 36 183 20,0
Huzur . 1,201 703 1,040 167 127
Mauganj 784 256 67 198 183
Bardi 2,912 487 78 189 1,296
Ramnagar 2,775. 367 155 73 1,191
Sohagpur 3,535 273 183 303. 1,474
Raghurajnagar 977 409 208 178 161
Total i3,ooo 2,803 1,967 1,290 4,632
Water is plentiful and the country is full of large tanks and reservoirs,
but these are not as a rule used for irrigation purposes; the only
system of 'wet' cultivation is from small embankments of earth raised
at the lower end of sloping fields, so as to retain water for some time
after the monsoon has ceased. In land thus moistened seed is sown
in October, producing a yield three or four times as great as that
obtained from the same area of equally good ' dry' soil. The method
is simple and well suited to the needs of local agriculture. Ordinary
well-irrigation is little practised, being confined to the cultivation of
pin, poppy, sugar-cane, and garden produce. Pasturage is ample,. but
no special breeds of cattle are raised.
Formerly the revenue was paid in kind called bhdg (' share')., This
system has been entirely replaced by cash payments in lands directly
under the State; but the holders of alienated land, which comprises
about / 2 per cent. of the total area, still adhere to the old practice)
Wages are paid in kind for agticultural operations, but in cash for
other work. Blacksmiths, carpenters, and masons get 4 to 8 annas '
a day. The :staple food-grains, rice, wheat, jowar, and kodon, sold in
1904 at i 1, 13, 17, and 14 seers per rupee respectively.
The forests are very extensive and of considerable commercial value.
They cover an area of 4,632 square miles, the most important lying.
south of the Kaimur range. The greater part of the forest consists
of sal (Shorea robusta), tendu (Diospyras tomentosa),
dhazva (Anogeissus lattfolia), and species of Termi- Forests.
nalia, with much bamboo. In the upland area .stunted teak, babul
(Acacia arabica), and khair (Acacia Catechu) prevail. Dohya (shifting)
cultivation was formerly very common, and is still to some, rlxtent
practised by jungle tribes, Trees are felled and, burnt, and the seed
sown in the ashes. This practice is highly destructive to forests; and