ROHTAK DISTRICT -312
With the exception of a few small outliers of Alwar quartzite be-
longing to the Delhi system, there is nothing of geological interest in
the District, which is almost, entirely of alluvial formation.
The District forms an arm from, the Upper Gangetic plain between
the Central Punjab and the desert, Trees, except where naturalized or
planted, are rare, but the nimbar (Acacia, leucophloea) is a conspicuous
exception. Mango groves are frequent in the north-east ; and along
canals and roadsides other sub-tropical species have been planted
successfully: The ber (Zizyphus , Tujuba) is common, and is.often
Game, including wild hog, antelope, ` ravine deer' (Indian gazelle);
nflgai, and hare, is plentiful. Peafowl, partridge, and quail are to be
met with throughout the year; and during the cold season sand-grouse,
wild geese,, bustards, and flamingoes. Wolves are still common, and
a stray leopard is occasionally killed. The villages by the canal are
overrun by :monkeys.
The climate is not inaptly described in the Memoirs of George
Thomas as 'in general salubrious, though when the sandy and desert
country lying to the westward becomes heated, it is inimical to
a European constitution.' In April, May, and June the hot winds
blow, steadily all day from the west, bringing up constant sandstorms
from the Rajputana desert ; at the close of the year frosts are common,
and strong gales prevail in February and March.
The average rainfall varies. from 19 inches at Jhajjar to 21 at Rohtak.
Of the rainfall at the latter place, x8 inches fall in the summer months
and 3 in the winter. The greatest fall recorded during the years
1885-1902 was 41 inches at :Jhajjar in 1885-6, and the least 8 inches
at Rohtak in 19ox-2.
The District belongs for the most part to the tract of HARIANA, and
its early history will be found in the articles on that region and on the
towns of ROHTAK, MAHAM, and JHAJJAR. It appears .
to have come at an early date under the control of 8istorq: .
the Delhi kings, and in 1355 Firoz Shah dug a canal from the Sutloj
as far as Jhajjar. Under Akbar the present District lay within the
Seabah of Delhi and the sarkdrs of Delhi and Hissar-Firoza. , In 1643
the Rohtak canal, is said to have been begun by Nawab Ali Khan, who
attempted to divert water from the old canal of Firoz Shah. On the
decay of the Delhi empire the District with the rest of Hariana was'
granted to the minister. Rukn-ud-din in 1718, and was in 1.732 trans-
ferred by him to the Nawabs of Farrukhnagar in GURGAON. , Faujdar
Khan, :Nawab of Farrukhnagar, who seems to have succeeded to the
territories of Hissar on the death of Shal dad Khan irt.1738, handed
down to. his son,. Nawab Kamgar: Khan, a dominion which embraced
the present Districts of Hissar and Rohtak, besides part of Gurgaon