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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 325.

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commenced, it was a mere mud-built village ori the banks of the Solani.
It is now a fair-sized town, with broad metalled roadways meeting at
right angles, and lined with excellent shops. It is also provided with
good saucer drains, which are flushed with water. pumped from the-canal.
A short distance above the town the Ganges Canal is carried over the
wide bed of the Solani by a magnificent brick aqueduct. Roorkee
first became important as the head-quarters of the canal workshops and
iron foundry, which were established in 1845-6, and extended and
improved in r85o. For thirty years the workshops were conducted
rather on- the footing of a private business than as -a - rnment
concern. In 1886 they were brought under the ordinary rules for
Government manufacturing departments. The annual out-turn ' is
valued at about z to 3 lakhs, and 8o workmen were employed
in 1903. Roorkee is the head-quarters of the Bengal Sappers and
Miners, who have large workshops, employing 135 men in 1903. The
most important institution is, however, the Thomason Engineering
College, called after its founder, who was Lieutenant-Governor from
1843 to 1-853. This institution had its origin in a class started'in 1845
to train native youths in engineering, to assist in. the. important public
works then beginning. The decision arrived at in 1847 to carry out
the Ganges Canal project increased the necessity for a well staff
of engineers, and the college was opened in 1$48. In 185:1 there
were 5o students, and 42 had entered the service. UP to 1875 each:'
student received a stipend; but from that year the number of -scholar-
ships and the number of guaranteed appointments were limited, though
education remained practically free. Since 1896 all 'students except
soldiers and in4ugrial. apprentices have paid fees, but- the applications
for admission far exceed the accommodation. In the same year the
methods of instruction were greatly developed, and the college was
practically rebuilt. There are now chemical, physical, electrical,, and
mechanical laboratories, and technical workshops fitted with the.latest
tools and machinery. The press is supplied with power machines, and
turns out all varieties of work besides ordinary printing. There are also
mechanical and industrial classes. The total number of students in
1903-4 was 369; and in 1903 the press employed 125 workmen, and
the workshops 52, besides :77 students. Roorkee is also the head-
quarters of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and of the
American Methodist Missions in this District. The Joint-Magistrate
and the Deputy-Collector posted to the subdivision, and an Executive
Engineer of the Upper Ganges Canal, reside here,
The municipality was created in 1868. The income and expenditure
from 1892 to i9o1 averaged Rs. 17,ooo and Rs. r6,ooo. In .1903-4
the income was Rs. 27,000, chiefly from octroi (Rs. r6,ooo); and the
expenditure was RS. z8,ooo.
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