SAfITHAR STATE 25
or 13 per cent. ; Brahmans, 3,8oo, or 11 per cent.; Lodhis, 3,000, or
9 per cent. ; Kachhis and Gujars, 2,ooo each, or 7 per cent. ; Gadarias,
1,700, or 5 per cent. The State contains 9o villages and one town,
SAMTHAR (population, 8, 286), the capital. For a Hindu State in this
part of India the percentage of Musalmans is unusually high. The
Muhammadan element also takes a considerable part in the adminis-
tration. The prevailing form of speech is Bundelkhandi. About
33 Per cent. of the population are supported by agriculture and 17 per
cent. by general labour.
The soil is for the most part poor, and the country is singularly
devoid of tanks, which are fairly common in the rest of Bundelkhand.
The principal soils are nadr, an inferior black soil; kdbar, a grey soil;
parua, a yellowish red soil, which is the most prevalent; and riinhar,
a stony soil, strewn with boulders of gneiss, and of very little agricultural
value. Of the total area, 85 square miles, or 42 per cent., are culti-
vated, of which only 519 acres are irrigable; 49 square miles, or 25 per
cent., are cultivable but not cultivated ; and the rest is jungle and
waste. Of the cropped area, jowdr occupies 30 square miles, or
35 Per cent. ; wheat,' 2o square miles, or 23 per cent. ; gram, i9 square
miles, or 22 per cent. ; and cotton, 5 square miles.
The only metalled road in the State is 8 miles in length, and leads
to Moth, on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The opening of
the railway in 1888 has greatly facilitated the export of grain, for which
there was formerly no market. Saltpetre is exported in some quantity,
mainly to Bhopal.
The administration is carried on by the chief, assisted by his wazir
(minister). The State is divided into four parganas, with head-quarters
at Shamshergarh, Amargarh, Maharajganj, and Lohargarh, each under
a tahsilddr. In all general administrative matters the wazir has full
powers. The chief exercises plenary criminal jurisdiction, and is the
final court of reference in other matters.
The revenues of the State, before its territories were reduced by the
Marathas, are said to have amounted to r2 lakhs. The annual receipts
are now 1•5 lakhs, mostly derived from land. The expenditure is
about the same.
A regular settlement was made in 1895 by Maharaja Chhatar Singh,
under which the land is farmed out and the revenue collected in cash
from the patta (lease) holders, in two instalments. The incidence of
the land revenue demand is Rs. 5 per acre of the cultivated area.
No land is alienated in jdgirs. Until Maharaja Chhatar Singh's time,
when the British rupee was made legal tender, the currency consisted
of the Xdna shdhi rupee of Jhansi and the Datia coin.
The troops consist of the chief's body-guard of 12 horsemen and
40 footmen, and an irregular force employed as police, which numbers