The following table shows the collections of land revenue and of
total revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees, for a
series of years :--
1880-i. 1890-1. 'goo-1. 1903-4.
Land revenue 2,43 2,90 2,88 3,87
Total revenue 4,70 5,63 6,80 8,87
Until igoi the roads were managed by a Government: grant adminis-
tered by the Deputy-Commissioner; but in that year the Cess Act
was introduced and a road cess committee was constituted, with the
Deputy-Commissioner as chairman, which maintains the roads outside
the municipal areas of Dumka, Deogarh, and Sahibganj.
The drainage of a marsh near Rajmahal was undertaken in 1898
under the provisions of the Drainage Act, and the work is now
The District contains 13 police stations or thdnas and 5 outposts.
The District Superintendent has jurisdiction in Dumka town, the
Deogarh subdivision, and the parts of Pakaur, Rajmahal, and Godda
outside the Daman-i-koh. The force subordinate to him in 1903
consisted of 6 inspectors, 28 sub-inspectors, 33 head constables, and
335 constables. In addition to these, a company of military police,
ioo strong, is stationed at Dumka. The remainder of the District is
excluded from the jurisdiction of the regular police; and police duties
are performed under the police rules of 1856 by the village headman,
a number of villages being grouped together under a parganait, ghat-
wdl, or sardar, who corresponds to a thdna officer. The parganait is
the Santal tribal chief, the ghdtwdl a police service-tenure holder, and
the sardar a Paharia tribal chief. As these indigenous police officials
did not satisfactorily cover the whole non-police area, Regulation III
of lgoo was passed, under which stipendiary sarddrs are appointed
to groups of villages, where there is no existing and properly remuner-
ated officer, and are paid by a cess on the villagers. There are in the
Daman-i-koh 33 parganaits and 2o hill sarddrs. Excluding these,
there are in the Dumka subdivision 55 stipendiary sarddrs, 4 ghdt
sarddrs remunerated by holdings of land, and 819 chaukidars; and
in the Jamtara subdivision 2 ghatwdls, 27 sarddrs, and 523 chaukidars.
In all, chaukidars number 3,965. A District jail at Dumka has accom-
modation for 140 prisoners, and subsidiary jails at Deogarh, Godda,
Rajmahal, Jamtara, and Pakaur for 116.
Education is very backward, only 2•5 per cent. of the population
(4-7 males and o-2 females) being able to read and write: in lgor ; but
progress has been made since 18g1, when only 2.8 per cent. of the
males were literate. The number of pupils under instruction increased