AGRIG'UL TUBE 99
The Sarawan country formed part of the Ghaznivid and Ghorid
empires, and fell into the hands of the Arghuns towards the end of
the fifteenth century. From them it passed to the History.
Mughals until, towards the end of the seventeenth
century, Mir Ahmad of Kalat acquired Mastung from Agha Jafar, the
Mughal governor. Henceforth Mastung remained under Kalat and
was the scene of an engagement between Ahmad Shah Durrani and
Nasir Khan I in 1758, in which the Afghans were at first defeated, but
Ahmad Shah afterwards advanced and assaulted Kalat. During the
first Afghan War, the country was one of the districts assigned by the
British in 1840 to Shah Shuja-ul-mulk, but it was restored to Kalat in
1842. During r84o the Sarawan tribesmen revolted and placed Nasir
Khan II on the throne. In 1871 another rebellion occurred, and the
Brahuis received a crushing defeat from Mir Khudadad Khan at Khad
near Mastung. In 1876 the latter place was the scene of the memor-
able settlement effected by Sir Robert Sandeman between Khudadad
Khan and his rebellious chiefs.
Curious mounds situated in the centre of the valleys occur through-
out the country. Two of the largest are Sampur in Mastung and
Karbukha in Mungachar. They are artificial, being composed of
layers of soil, ashes, and broken pottery.
KALAT TOWN, and Mastung, the head-quarters of the Political Agent,
are the only towns., The country possesses 298 permanent villages.
The population in 1901 was 65,549 Most of the population.
people make their way to Kachhi in the winter.
The centre of the country is inhabited by the cultivating classes
known as Dehwars, Khorasanis, and Johanis, most of whom are sub-
jects of the Khan of Kalat. In the surrounding hills and vales live
the tribesmen composing the Sarawan division of the Brahui con-
federacy. They include the Lahris (5,400), Bangulzais (9,000),
Kurds (3,100), Shahwanis (6,300), Muhammad Shahis (2,8oo), Rai-
sanis (2,4oo), and Sarparras (goo), all of whom are cultivators and
flock-owners. In this category must also be included the numerous
Langav cultivators of Mungachar (17,ooo). All the Muhammadans
are of the Sunni sect. A few Hindu traders are scattered here and
there. Most of the wealthier men possess servile dependants. Artisans'
work is done by Loris. The prevailing language is Brahui ; but the
Langvs, some of the Bangulzais, and a few other clans speak Baluchi,
and the Dehwars a corrupted form of Persian.
Cultivation is carried on in the centre of the valleys, which possess
flat plains of a reddish clay soil, highly fertile when irrigated. This is the
best soil and is known as matt, nzatmdl, or hanaina. Agriculture.
Dark loam is known as siydhzamin. The greater part
of the cultivable area is `dry crop' (khushkdba). Owing to the scanty