128 SJT,1RA DISTRICT
Superintendent and two inspectors. There are 17 police stations and
a total police force of 966, of which 16 are chief constables, 196 head
constables, and 754 constables. The mounted police number 7, under
one dafaddr. The District contains 1g subsidiary jails, with accom-
modation for 424 prisoners. The daily average number of prisoners
during 1904 was 89, of whom 5, were females.
Satara stands nineteenth among. the twenty-four Districts of the
Presidency in the literacy of its population, of whom 4 per cent
(8 per cent. males and 0,3 females) could read and write in 1go1. In
1865 there were 104. schools and 6,1oo pupils. The number of pupils
rose to 12,851 in 188T and to 23,168 in 1891, but fell in T901 to 22,146.
In 1903-4 there were 352 public schools with 16,962 pupils, of whom
1,519 were girls, besides 47 private schools with 878 pupils. Of the
352 institutions classed as public, one is managed by Government,
282 by the local boards, and 36 by the municipal boards, 31 are aided
and 2 unaided. The public schools include 3 high, 7 middle, and
342 primary schools. The total expenditure .on education in 1903-4
was more than 13 lakhs. Of this, Local funds contributed Rs. 50,000,
municipalities Rs. Ta,ooo, and fees RS. 25,ooo. About 74 per cent.
of the total was devoted to primary schools.
In 1904 the District possessed 2 hospitals and 9 dispensaries and
7 other medical institutions, with accommodation for 124 in-patients.
About 1o6,96o persons were treated, including 818 in-patients, and
3;6og operations were performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 19,770,
of which Rs. 11,370 was met from municipal and local board funds.
The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was nearly
28,ooo, representing a proportion of 24 per 1,ooo of population, which
is almost equal to the average of the Presidency.
[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xix (1885) ; W. W. Loch,
Historical Account of the Poona, Sdtdra, and Sholapur Districts (1877).]
Satara Tftluka.-TVuka of Satara District, Bombay, lying between
17° 3o' and 17° 50' N. and 73° 48' and 74° 1o' E., with an area of
339 square miles. It contains one town, SATARA (population, 26,022),
the District and tdluka head-quarters; and 152 villages. The popula-
tion in 19ox was 128,391, compared with 139,892 in 18gi., The
density, 379 persons per square mile, is the highest in the District.
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was more than 1-9 lakhs, and
for cesses Rs. 1g,ooo. Satara includes the three valleys of the Kistna,
Vena, and Urmodi rivers, which are open and slope gently towards the
base of steep and bare hills. Clumps of mangoes stud the valleys; and
babitl grows plentifully on the banks of the Kistna. The soil, near the
rivers is rich and black, but grows gradually grey and poorer towards
the hills. The climate is healthy, and the rainfall, averaging 40 inches,
is higher than in most other tdlukas.