210 SHAHJAHANPUR CITY
has fluctuated. The numbers at the four enumerations were as
follows: (1872) 72,136, (1881) 77,404, (1891) 78,522, and (igoi)
76,458, of whom 73,544 resided in the municipality and 2,914 in
cantonments. Hindus numbered 35,636 in igoi and Muhammadans
The date usually assigned to the foundation of the city is 1647, after
the defeat of the Rajputs in this neighbourhood by Diler Khan and
Bahadur Khan, and a mosque was built here by the latter in that year.
The city has no history apart from that of the District, which has
already been related. There are few buildings of any interest. The
old fort was completely destroyed after the Mutiny; and the mosque
referred to above and a few tombs, including that of Bahadur Khan,
one of the founders of the city, are the only memorials of the former
rulers. The principal public buildings, besides the ordinary District
offices, are the municipal hall, the District school, and the male and
female dispensaries. The American Methodist Mission has its head-
quarters here, and possesses several churches and an orphanage.
A new meeting-house has recently been built by the Arya Samaj.
Shahjahanpur is the head-quarters of an officer of the Opium depart-
ment. The municipality was constituted in 1864. During the ten
years ending igoi the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 74,000
and Rs. 72,ooo respectively. In 1903-4 the income was 1-4 lakhs,
including octroi (Rs. 58,ooo), rents of municipal markets (Rs. 27,000),
and sale of refuse (RS. 23,000). The municipality also has Rs. 30,000
invested. The expenditure amounted to 1.3 lakhs, including con-
servancy (Rs. 39,ooo), roads and buildings (Rs. 13,000), public safety
(RS. 24,ooo), and administration (Rs. 18,ooo). Shahjahanpur is
remarkable for the.excellence of its drainage and general sanitation.
British troops form •the usual garrison of the cantonment, and in
1901-2 Boer prisoners were encamped here. The income and
expenditure of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 were Rs. 15,ooo and
Rs. 18,ooo. The trade of Shahjahanpur is small compared with its
population. Sugar is the chief article of manufacture and commerce.
The Rosa (Rausar) factory, which lies two miles south of the city, is
the only establishment managed by Europeans. It deals with about
to or 12 per cent. of the sugar produced in the District, and employed
632 hands in 1903. Raw sugar was formerly purchased for refining,
but cane-crushing machinery has recently been erected, to supplement
the supply. Rum is also manufactured and exported to many parts of
India. The District high school has 188 pupils, and the tahsila school
214, while the municipality maintains 4 schools and aids 17 others,
with 1,452 pupils.
Shah-ki-Dheri.--Village and ruins in Rawalpindi District, Punjab.