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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 22, p. 231.


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PHYSICAL ASPECTS
231
i
South of Kokang, in the Sonmu State, the country becomes a medley
of hills and valleys, and retains this character throughout the rest of
the trans-Salween portion of the Northern' Shan States, rising higher
and' higher towards the eastern range which forms the watershed
between the Salween and the Mekong. South of this the country
of East Mangltin consists, broadly speaking, of the mountain mass
which divides the Salween from the upper courses of its tributary,
the Nam' Hka.
The Northern Shan States are in the drainage area of the Irrawaddy
and Salween rivers, all the streams on the west of the watershed' find-
ing their. way ultimately into the Irrawaddy by way of the Nam Tu
(Myitnge) or the Nam Mao (Shweli), and those on the east into
the Salween. The watershed lies at no great distance from the last-
named river; and the streams entering its right bank, -with the
exception of the Nam Pang, referred to below, have consequently
a comparatively short course, with a fall which makes many of them
sheer mountain torrents. Among the largest are the Nam Nim and
Nam Kyet. Those ,entering from the left bank of the Salween are
of greater length, among the most important being the Nam Ting,.
which flows from the east, rising in the neighbourhood of Shunning Fu
in China; the Nam Nang of the Mothai country, and the Nam Hka
which flows through the Wa States. The Na in Pang, although a tribu-
tary of the Salween, does not join that rivet in these States. It is the
most important of all the Salween's affluents in this part of the country.
Its head-waters are in the hills between Loi Leng and Loi Maw in the
South Hsenwi State; and it` flows from north to south, parallel to the
Salween, for more than ioo miles, separated from it by the intervening
hills of Loi Maw, Loi Se, and Loi Lan, and' enters the Salween.on its
right bank four miles below the village of Kenghkam, i~n'the Southern
Shan States. It has many tributaries, which flow down from Loi
Leng and Loi Maw, and farther south it is joined by the streams:
which water the circles of Tangyan and Mbngyai in South' Hsenwi:
The Nam Pang has recently been bridged by the Sawbwa of South
Hsenwi at Mankat on the Lashio-Tangyan' cart-road, where it has
a breadth of nearly Zoo feet., The Nam Tu or MYITNGE is, after the
Salween; the most important river in the Northern Shan States. The
main stream rises" in the Salween-Irrawaddy watershed, east of ^Hsenwi
town, and, flowing generally westwards and southwards, is swelled
above Hstpaw to a considerable river by the Nam Yap, which comes
down from the Lashio valley, and ' by the Nam Ma, which winds
through the South Hsenwi 'hills from Loi Leng. Farther' down it is
joined' by the Nam Hsim on its right and by the Nam Hka on its
left bank. . Ever -pursuing its southward and westward' cou?rse, it 'runs
through deep gorges between Hsumhsai and Lawksawk, and finally
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