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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 22, p. 248.

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States are kept in the State lock-ups. Long-term prisoners are sent to
serve out their sentences in a Burma jail.
Elementary education is imparted in the pongyi kyaungs of the
States, but the standard of literacy is low, and in 19or only 9.q per
cent. of the male population were able to read and write. American
Baptist Mission schools are maintained at Hsipaw and Namhkam,
and the Hsipaw school has 2 masters and about 40 pupils.
There are civil hospitals at Lashio and Hsipaw, with accommodation
for 22 in-patients, and a dispensary at Kutkai. In 1903 the number of
cases treated was 10,336, including 366 in-patients, and ir9 operations
were performed. The income amounted to Rs. q,8oo, derived almost
entirely from Provincial funds. There is a hospital at Hsipaw, managed
by the American Baptist Mission, with 24 beds. In 1903 the number
of cases treated at this institution was 1,846, including 2o in-patients.
Another hospital, under the same agency, is situated at Namhkam.
In 1903--4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 7,233,
representing 23 per 1,ooo of the population.
[Sir J. G. Scott, Upper Burnia Gazetteer (5 vols., Rangoon, 19oo-i) ;
Burma : a Handbooh of Practical Information (1906) ; C. C. Lowis,
:1 Note on the Palaungs (Rangoon, 1906).]
Shan States, Southern,-A group of Native States in Burma,
under the charge of a Superintendent, lying between r9° io' and
2s° 16'. N. and 96° 13' and rot° 9' E., with an area of about 36,ooo
square miles. They are bounded on the north by the Northern Shan
States, from which they are separated for some distance by the Nam
Tu or Myitnge river; on the east by China; on the south by China,
the French Lao territory, Siam, and Karenni; and on the west by the
Kyaukse, Meiktila, and Yamethin Districts of Upper Burma, and the
Toungoo District of Lower Burma.
With the exception of a tract on the western boundary and the
eastern half of the Kengtung State towards the China border, the
States lie in the drainage area of the Salween, which
aspects roughly bisects them, flowing first in a general
southerly course, and then south-west into Karenni.
The eastern part of the Kengtung State drains into the Mekong, of
which the principal tributaries are the Nam Lwi, the Nam Lin, and
the Nam Hkok, the last named flowing for the greater part of its course
in. Chinese territory. The most noteworthy tributaries of the Salween
on its eastern side within the limits of the Southern Shan States are
the Nam Hka, forming the northern boundary of the trans-Salween
areas, and the Nam Hsim farther south. Its western tributaries are of
more, importance than its eastern, and their courses are all more or less
parallel with that of the Salween itself. The Nam Pang rises in South
Hsenwi in the Northern Shan States, and waters the north-eastern
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