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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 22, p. 254.


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254
S O UTHL'RN SHAN STA TA S
each other, without a shot being fired. Some trouble was caused
by the expongyi Twet Nga Lu, who in 1888 was able to drive out
the Mongnai Sawbwa and establish himself in his capital, but he was
eventually shot in the same year. The column which dealt with
Twet Nga Lu was called upon to quell disturbances in the Southern
Myelat States, which had been brought about by the chief of Yawn-
ghwe ; and, after it had settled matters in Mongnai, had to turn its
attention to Mawkmai, which had been invaded and reduced to vas-
salage by Sawlapaw, the chief of Eastern Karenni, or Gantarawadi.
Order was re-established in Mawkmai, but in June, 1888, Sawlapaw
again attacked the State. He was, however, driven back with very
severe loss; and as he refused-to surrender, a punitive expedition
entered Sawlon, his capital, in 1889 and, on his flight, Sawlawi, his
heir, was appointed in his place. Finally, the Kengtung State on the
farther side of the Salween submitted in 1890. Considerable diffi-
culties arose with Siam about this time concerning certain trans-
.Salween dependencies of Mawkmai, Mongpan, and Karenni. In
1889-9o an Anglo-Siamese Commission, in which the Siamese govern-
ment declined to join at the last moment, partitioned these tracts, and
the Siamese garrisons were withdrawn from so much of the country
as was found not to belong to Siam. The demarcation of this frontier
was finally carried out by a joint Commission in 1892-3. The Anglo-
French boundary was settled in 1894-5, when the State of Kengcheng
was divided between the two countries, the Mekong forming the boun-
dary, and the cis-Mekong portion being added to Kengtung. The
boundary of the Kengtung State and China was settled by the Anglo-
Chinese Boundary Commission of 1898-9.
The most important pagodas are those at Angteng and Thandaung
in Yawnghwe, said to have been built by llhamma Thawka Min
(Asoka) and Anawrata; their annual festivals are largely attended.
In the Pangtara State is the Shweonhmin pagoda, a richly gilt shrine
in a grotto in the hill-side. The sides and roof of the cave are crowded
with statues of Buddha and emblems of the faith. There is a larger
attendance at its festival than at any other in the Southern Shan States,
except perhaps that of Mongkiing. In the Poila State is the Tame
pagoda, covered on the upper half with copper plates and much
revered. Both the Pangtara and Poila pagodas are said to have
been built by Asoka and repaired by Anawrata of Pagan.
The population of the Southern Shan States in 1901 was 770,559
Its distribution is given in the table on the next page, which shows
considerable variation in density of population. The
Population, small States of Pangmi and Nawngwawn are as
thickly populated as the delta Districts of Lower Burma. With the
exception of Yawnghwe, none of the larger Sawbwaships show a high
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