JD11IINIS'TI2,11 TION 303
terrible severity. In 1818, owing partly to the ravages of the Pesbwa's
armies, and partly to the failure of crops, the District again suffered
from famine, accompanied by cholera, which destroyed thousands.
Other famines or scarcities occurred in 1824, 1832-3, 1845, 1854,
1862, 1876-7, 1896-7, and 1899-rgoo, owing to, scanty rainfall.
In the famine of 1876-7 the District suffered very severely. At
the height of distress the largest number on works was 95,617 in
January, 1877. A considerable number of people left the District
and went to Berar and the Nizam's Dominions, and many cattle died.
During the cold season of 1879, from January to March, swarms of
rats and mice appeared and about seven-eighths of the crops were
wholly destroyed. The scanty rainfall of 1896 caused a failure of the
crops throughout the whole of the District, thus necessitating relief
measures. The largest number on works was 124,8oo in April. The
maximum number on gratuitous relief was 15,6oo in September.
The distress continued till the end of November. The last scarcity,
which extended over two consecutive years, was in 1899-igor. In
October, 1899, relief works were opened which continued till October,
1902. The maximum on relief was reached in April, 1goo, when
nearly 156,ooo persons were on works and 13,000 in receipt of
gratuitous relief. By August, i9oo, the number on gratuitous relief
had reached 25,ooo. The excess of mortality over the normal in
1899-1goo was 18,8oo, and it is calculated that 70,000 cattle died.
Including advances to agriculturists and weavers, and remissions of
land revenue, the famine in this District alone cost the state 84 lakhs.
More than rol lakhs was advanced under the Land Improvement and
Agriculturists' Loans Acts.
The District consists of seven tdluhas, in two subdivisions under
an Assistant Collector and a Deputy-Collector. The
Administration. are SHOIAPUR, MADIJA, KARMALA, BARSI, .
PANDHARPUR, SANGOLA, and MALSIRAS. The Collector is Political
Agent of the State of Akalkot.
The District and Sessions judge at Sholapur is assisted for civil
business by six Subordinate Judges. There are twenty-eight officers
to administer criminal justice in the District. The proximity of the
Nizam's Dominions facilitates dacoities by small bands of bad characters,
who take refuge across the frontier. The commonest forms of crime
are theft and hurt.
Sholapur is mainly ryottvdri. The revenue history of the District
differs little from that of Ahmadnagar and Poona, of which many of
the villages once formed a part. Like those Districts, Sholapur, after
a few years of rapid advance after British annexation, suffered from
1825 onwards from low prices, and large remissions had in consequence
to be granted. In 1830 the old rates were replaced by Mr. Pringle's