304 SHOLAPUR DISTRICT
settlement; but the new rates again proved excessive, mainly owing to
the bad seasons which followed their introduction, and in consequence
temporary rates were granted between 1836 and 1839 on more favour-
able terms. In 1840 a regular revenue survey settlement was commenced
by Captain Wingate, and was gradually introduced into the whole of the
District. The revision survey of the Madha Mthrha led to revised rates
being introduced in that tdluka in 18.69-7o and extended to the whole
of the District by 1874. In October, x874, in consequence of the
marked fall in produce prices during the three previous years, Govern-
ment decided that it was advisable to limit, and in some cases to
reduce, the amount of the enhancements made at the revised survey
settlement. The reductions made were from 74 to 38 per cent. in
Madha, from 77 to 44 per cent. in Sholapur, from 76 to 46 per cent.
in Pandharpur, and from 62 to 42 per cent. in Barsi. The revision
survey of 1874-94 found an increase in the cultivated area of oĽ4 per
cent., and the settlement enhanced the total revenue by 27 per cent.
in the three tklukas for which details are available. The average rates
per acre fixed by this survey are: `dry' land, 8 annas ; garden land,
15 annas ; and rice land, Rs. 1-6.
Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources
have been, in thousands of rupees:--
There are five municipalities--SH01,9PUR, BARS1, KARMALA, SAN-
coLA, and PANDHARPUR-with a total income averaging 2.8 lakhs.
Among special sources of municipal income are a pilgrim tax at Pan-
dh.arpur and a water rate at Sholapur. The District board and seven
tdluka boards had an income of 1-5 lakhs in 1903-4, the principal
source being the land cess. The expenditure amounted to 1-2 lakhs,
including Rs. 45,ooo devoted to the maintenance and construction
of roads and buildings.
The District Superintendent of police is aided by two Assistants and
one inspector. There are 12 police stations in the District. The total
strength of the police force is 579: namely, 9 chief constables, 109
head constables, and 461 constables. The mounted police number
7, under one dafaddr. There are 8 subsidiary jails in the District,
with accommodation for 197 prisoners. The daily average number
of prisoners in 1904 was 70, of whom 5 were females.
Sholapur stands fifteenth as regards literacy among the twenty-four
Districts of the Presidency. In 1901 only 4-7 per cent. of the popula-