SID.IIO UT TAL UK
Gumti on the south-west to the Gogra on the east, and thus lies
partly in the uplands and partly in the low alluvial tract bordering
the latter river, which is also intersected by the Chauka. In 1903-4
the area under cultivation was 362 square miles, of which 98 were
irrigated. Wells supply one-fifth of the irrigated area, and tanks and
ihils most of the remainder.
Sidhnai Canal.-An irrigation work in the Punjab, taking off from
the left bank of the Ravi and watering part of Multan District. It
derives its name, meaning `straight,' from a remarkable reach of the
Ravi, which extends in a perfectly straight cutting for 1o or 12 miles
from Tulamba to Sarai Sidhu. It was opened for irrigation in 1886.
The head-works consist of a weir 737 feet long, built across this reach.
The main line has a bed-width of 9o feet and a maximum discharge of
r,820 cubic feet per second; after 30 miles it divides into two large
distributaries, which between them take nearly one-third of the whole
supply. The very short length of the canal compared with the area
irrigated is one cause of its financial success. There are in all 13 main
distributary channels taking out of the main line, and three subsidiary
canals which take out of the river above the dam. The gross area
commanded is 595 square miles, of which the greater part was Govern-
ment waste, and was settled by colonists brought from various parts of
the Punjab, the land being given out for the most part in 9o-acre plots.
Although the whole of the water in the Sidhnai reach can be turned
into the canal, the Ravi in the winter is often absolutely dry owing to
the supply taken by the Bari Doab Canal, so that the spring crop has
to be matured by the aid of wells. The average area irrigated during
the three years ending 1903-4 was 190 square miles. The capital
outlay up to the end of r903-4 was about 13 lakhs, and the average
annual profit more than 11 per cent.
Sidhout Subdivision.-Subdivision of Cuddapah District, Madras,
consisting of the SIDHOUT, BADVEL, and PULLAMPET taluks.
Sidhout Taluk (,the hermit's banyan-tree').-Eastern tdluk of
Cuddapah District, Madras, lying between 14° 16' and 14° 41' N.
and 78° 52' and 79° 22' E., with an area of 606 square miles. It is
situated between the Palkonda Hills and the Velikonda range. The
population in rgo1 was 68,087, compared with 66,810 in 1891 ; and
the density is 112 persons per square mile, compared with the District
average of 148. It contains 79 villages, including Sidhout, the head-
quarters. The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4
amounted to Rs. 1,1o,ooo. The annual rainfall is 33 inches, against
the District average of 28 inches. The best land is in the valley of
the Penner, where water is easily obtained by sinking wells. Little
of the hdluk is cultivated except the valleys, owing to the numerous
rugged hills by which it is cut up. Though four rivers cross it,