below 7,000 feet. The ridges between the Giri river and the Dharthi
range are covered with lscrub jungle, interspersed with pine, and, on
the lower slopes, are $ub-tropical in character. The lower hills,
including the Kiarda Dun and the northern face of the Outer Siwaliks,
have an area of 176 Square miles, of which 104 square miles are
stocked with sdl, pure or mixed, 67 with tropical species, and 3 with
pine. The Forest department is controlled by a Conservator, under
whom is a considerable staff of officials, mostly trained foresters. The
State is divided into two forest divisions, the Rajgarh or upper and
the Nahan or lower, each with five ranges. In the former division
the forests are classed as protected, in the latter as `reserved,' many
of those in the Dun being absolutely closed. Nearly all have been
demarcated. The forest revenue in 1904 was Rs. 8o,ooo.
Iron is found in several places, but none of the mines is worked,
and iron for the foundry is imported. Lead, copper, alum, and ochre
are also known to exist, but only the last is mined at two places. Gold
is found in minute qua ~intities in the Run, Bata, and other streams.
Slate quarries are worked in the Pachhad and Rainka tahsils.
The only important industry is the foundry at Nahan, which belongs
to the State. Started lin 1867, magnetic iron, obtained from the
Chhetmine in the Rainka tahsil, was at first
Trade and smelted'; but the wrought :iron produced could not
communications. compete with English mild steel, and the foundry
was accordingly utilized for the manufacture of sugar-cane crushing
mills, which found a ready market throughout the Punjab and United
Provinces. The foundry employs 6oo men, and its capacity is 75 tons
per week. Much modern machinery has been erected. Persian
carpets, floorcloths, and, mats are made in the State jail. The only
other industries are thel making of wooden vessels, churns, blankets,
&c., in the hills, and of coarse cotton cloth. Some cane furniture
is also made.
There is a considerable export of agricultural and forest produce.
Wheat, maize, and graml, are sent from the Kiarda Dun to Dehra Dun
and Ambala, the hill piioduce going mostly to Simla and the neigh-
bouring cantonments. Timber is also exported via the Jumna. Cloth,
utensils, sugar, salt, drugs, and articles of European and Indian manu-
facture are imported. $n bad years the Nahan tahsil has to import
grain from the plains.
A good road leads from Barara on the North-Western Railway to
Nahan, the capital of the State, which is also connected with the
Rampur ferry on the Jtjmna by a good road. There are 82 miles of
cart-roads in the State and, for a hilly country, communications are
The administration is~, closely modelled on that of the Punjab, the