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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, p. 51.

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Sitamarhi Subdivision.-Northern subdivision of Muzaffarpur
District, Bengal, lying between 26 16' and 26 53' N. and 85 11' and
85 5o' E., with an area of 1,0x6 square miles. The subdivision is
a low-lying alluvial plain, traversed at intervals by ridges of higher
ground. The population rose from 924,396 in i89r to 986,582 in 1901,
when there were 971 persons per square mile. In spite of the fact that
it is particularly liable to crop failures and bore the brunt of the famine
of x896-7, this is the most progressive part of the District and has been
growing steadily since the first Census-in 1872 ; it attracts settlers both
from Nepal and from the south of the District. The subdivision con-
tains one town, SITAMARHI (population, 9,538), the head-quarters; and
996 villages. BAIRAGNIA, the terminus of a branch of the Bengal and
North-Western Railway, is an important market for the frontier trade
with Nepal. The subdivision is noted for its breed of cattle, and an
important fair is held annually at Sitamarhi in-March-April.
Sitamarhi Town.-Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same
name in Muzaffarpur District, Bengal, situated in 26 35' N. and
85 29' E., on the west bank of the Lakhandai river. Population
(x901), 9,538 A large fair lasting a fortnight is held here about the
end of March, and is attended by people from very great distances.
Siwan pottery, spices, brass utensils, and cotton cloth form the staple
articles of commerce, but the fair is especially noted for the large
quantity of bullocks brought to it, the Sitamarhi cattle being a noted
breed. Tradition relates that the lovely Janaki or Sita here sprang to
life out of an earthen pot into which Raja Janaka had driven his plough-
share. Sitamarhi is situated on a branch of the Bengal and North-
Western Railway, and is also connected by road with the Nepal frontier,
Darbhanga, and Muzaffarpur.' The Lakhandai river is spanned by a
fine brick bridge. The town has a large trade in rice, sakhwa wood,
oilseeds, hides, and Nepal produce. The chief manufactures are salt-
petre and the janeo or sacred thread worn by the twice-born castes.
Sitamarhi was constituted a municipality in 1882. The income during
the decade ending 19oi-2 averaged Rs. 9,9oo, and the expenditure
Rs. 7,8oo. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,ooo, half of which was
derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure
was Rs. 8;ooo. The town contains the usual public offices; the sub-
jail has accommodation for 26 prisoners.
Sitamau State.-One of the mediatized States of the Central India
Agency, under the Political Agent in Malwa, lying between 23 48'
and 24 8' N. and 75 15' and 75 32' E., with an area of about
350 square miles, of which 239 square miles, or 68 per cent., have been
alienated in jkgzr grants. It is bounded on the north by the Indore
and Gwalior States; on the south by Jaord and Dewas ; on the east by
the Jhalawar State in Rajputana ; and on the west by Gwalior. The
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