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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, p. 53.

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98 per cent. of the population. The most numerous castes are Brah
mans and Rajputs, each numbering about 4,ooo. Agriculture supports
48 per cent. of the total, and general labour 12 per cent.
The rich black soil which prevails produces excellent crops of all
ordinary grains, and also of poppy grown for opium. Of the total area
of 350 square miles, 70, or 20 per cent., are under cultivation, 1o square
miles, or 13 per cent. of this area, being irrigated and 6o `dry'; of the
remainder, 7 square miles are capable of cultivation, the rest being
jungle and irreclaimable waste. Of the cropped area, 61 square miles
produce cereals, 7 poppy, and 2 cotton. Irrigation is confined to poppy
and vegetables.
Trade and commerce have expanded considerably since the opening
of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway and the construction of the metalled
road between the Mandasor station on that line and the town of
Sitamau, a distance of 18 miles. A British post and telegraph office
has been opened at Sitamau town.
The State is divided for administrative purposes into three tahsils-
Sitamau, Bhagor, and Titroda--each under a tahsilddr or naib-tahsilddr,
who is collector of revenue and magistrate for his charge.
The Raja has full powers in all revenue, civil judicial, and general
administrative matters. In criminal cases he exercises the powers of
a Sessions Court in British India, but is required to submit all sentences
of death, transportation, or imprisonment for life to the Agent to the
Governor-General for confirmation. The British codes, modified to
suit local needs, have been introduced into the State courts.
The normal revenue is 1-3 lakhs. Of this, Rs.8o,ooo is derived from
land, Rs. 31,000 from tribute paid by feudatory Thakurs, and Rs. 13,000
from customs dues. The principal heads of expenditure are: chief's
establishment, Rs. 23,000; general administration, Rs. 11,ooo ; public
works, Rs. 5,000 ; police, Rs. 8,ooo ; tribute to the Gwalior State,
Rs. 27,ooo. The income of alienated lands amounts to 17 lakhs. 'Che
incidence of land revenue demand is Rs. 3 per acre of cultivated land,
and 13 annas per acre of the total area. British rupees have been the
State currency since 1896.
No troops are kept up by the State. A police force was organized
in 1896, and a jail has been opened. Sitamau town contains one
school, with about 200 pupils, and a dispensary.
Sitamau Town.-Capital of the State of the same name in Central
India, situated in 24 1' N. and 75 21' E., on a small eminence
1,700 feet above sea-level. Sitamau is 132 miles distant by road from
Indore. It is connected with the Mandasor station of the Rajputana-
Malwa Railway by a metalled road 18 miles in length, and is 486 miles
from Bombay. Population (1901), 5,877. The town is surrounded by
a wall with seven gates, and its foundation is ascribed to a Mina chief,
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