the total population, and general labour 5 per cent. Rajputs and
Musalmans hold most of the land, their estates being often of con-
siderable size. Brahmans, Kurmis, Ahirs, Chamars, and Pasis are the
There were 548 native Christians in 19oll, of whom '525 were
Methodists. The American Methodist Mission was opened in 1864.
Sitapur, though naturally very fertile, is still backward compared with
Southern Oudh. Holdings are large, rents are to a considerable extent
paid in kind, and high-caste cultivators, who do not Agriculture.
labour with their own hands, are numerous. Along
the Guma is found a tract of light soil which is inferior ; but east of this
the centre of the District is,composed of a good loam, stiffening into
clay in the hollows. The sandy soil produces bdjra and barley, while
in the richer loam sugar-cane, wheat, and maize are grown. In the
lowlands west of the Chauka rice is largely grown, as the floods are
usually not too severe to injure the crop. Between the Chauka. and
the Gogra, however, the autumn crop is very precarious, and during
the rains the gdq ar, or lowland, is swept by violent torrents. In this
tract even the spring cultivation is poor.
The land tenures are those commonly found in Oudh. About
48 per cent. of the whole area is held by laluhddrs, and sub-settlement
holders have only a small share in this. Single zaminddrs hold i i per
cent., and joint zaminddrs and palliddrs the rest. The main agricul-
tural statistics for 1903-4 are given below, in square miles :-
Tahsil. Total. Cultivated. Irrigated. Cultivabl
_ 570 -_05 _ -. _
Sitapur 88 ^6
Biswan 565 40 36 4.5
Sidhauli . 502 362 98 5t
Misrikh 613 432 94 94
Total 2,250 1,625 316 252
Wheat is the most important crop, covering 416 square miles, or a
fourth of the net cultivated area. Pulses (294), rice (250), gram (240),
kodon and small millets (210), barley (208), and maize are also largely
grown. Of non-food crops the chief are poppy (27), sugar-cane (43),
and oilseeds (41).
There has been a very considerable
cultivation during the last forty years, amounting to about 35 per cent.,
and waste land is still being broken up as new tenants are obtained.
In addition to this the area bearing a double crop has trebled.
Improvements in the methods of agriculture and the introduction of
better staples are noticeable, but are not proceeding very rapidly. In
the autumn, rice is taking the place of the inferior small millets; but
increase in the area under