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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, p. 78.

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78 soly Rrv~r,
Central India, the river rises with incredible rapidity. The entire rain-
f‚ll of an area of about zr,3oo square miles requires to find an outlet
by this channel, which frequently proves unable to carry off the total
flood discharge, calculated at 830,000 cubic feet per second. These
heavy floods are of short duration, seldom lasting for more than four
days ; but in recent years they have wrought much destruction in the
low-lying plains of Sh‚h‚b‚d. Near the site of the great dam at Dehri
the Son is crossed by the grand trunk road on a stone causeway ; and
lower down, near Koelw‚r, the East Indian Railway has been carried
across on a lattice-girder bridge. This bridge, begun for a single line
of rails in h8~5, and finally completed for a doublť line in r8~o, has
a total length bf 4, z qq feet from back to back of the abutments.
'Che Son possesses historical interest as being probably identical with
the ňrannoboas of Greek geographers, which is thought to be a corrup-
tion of Hiranya- il‚hu, or ` the golden-armed ' (a title of Siva), a name
which the Son anciently bore. The old town of P‚libothr‚ or P‚tali-
put;ra, corresponding to the modern PATNA, was situated at the con-
fluence of the Erannoboas and the Ganges ; and, in addition, we know
that the junction of the Son with the Ganges has been gradually re
cťding westwards. Old channels of the Son have been found between
Bankipore and Dinapore, and even below the present site of Patna. In
the Bengal Atlas of iq~z the junction is marked near Maner, and it
would seem to have been at the same spot in the seventeenth century ;
it is now about ten miles higher up the Ganges.
;ion Canals.-A system of irrigation works in the Districts of
Shi~h‚b‚d, Gay‚, and Patna, Bengal, which derive their supply from
an anicut across the Son river at Dehri. The idea of using the
waters of the Son for irrigation originated about fifty years ago with
the late Colonel C. H. Dickens, and for many years the subject was
under discussion. The project was undertaken by the East India
Irrigation and Canal Company, but was handed back to Government
in r868, and work was not actually commenced until the following
year. Sufficient progress had been made in r873 to allow of water
being supplied through cuts in the banks of the Arrah canal to relieve
the drought of that year, and the canals were completed a few years
later. 'l'hey carry a maximum volume of 6,350 cubic feet per second.
About 8o per cent. of the irrigation lies in Sh‚h‚b‚d, z r per cent. in
Gay‚, and q per cent. in Patna District.
'The general plan of the works comprises the Dehri anicut, a main
western canal branching off above the anicut on the left bank, and
a main eastern canal branching off on the right. The anicut, or weir,
which is na,5oo feet in one undivided length, and is, consequently, one
of the longŽst weirs -in existence; consists of a mass of uncemented
rubble stone, with two core wťlls of masonry founded on shallow wells.
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