by the builders of house-boats, and the darker colours of the walnut-
wood have been mixed with the lighter shades of the pine. A good
specimen of modern woodwork is found in the well-known shrine of
Nttkshbandi not far from the Jāma Masjid. A few of the kkatamband
ceilings have been introduced into England.
There is a large trade in leather. Hides are prepared in the villages
by the Wātals and are then brought to Srļnagar, where they undergo
further preparation. The leathern portmanteaux and valises made in
Sr:inagar stand an amount of rough usage which few English solid
leather bags would survive.
The furriers of Srinagar chiefly depend for their livelihood on the
business given to them by sportsmen, who send, in skins to be cured.
The recent law for the protection of game, under which the sale of
skins and horns is prohibited, has curtailed the business of the furriers.
The lapidaries possess very great skill, and are especially proficient
Kashmir was once famous for its paper, which was much in request
in India for manuscripts, and was used by all who wished to impart
dignity to their correspondence. The pulp from which the paper'is
made is a mixture of rags and hemp fibre, obtained by pounding these
materials under a lever-mill, worked by water-power. Lime and some
kind of soda are used to whiten the pulp. The pulp is then placed in
stone troughs or baths and mixed with water, and from this mixture
a 'layer of the pulp is extracted on a light frame of reeds. This layer is
the paper, which is pressed and dried in the sun. Next it is polished
with pumice-stone, and its surface is glazed with rice water. A final
polishing with onyx stone is given, and the paper is then ready for use.
It is durable and in many ways excellent, but it cannot compete with
the cheap mill-paper of India.
The boating industry closely concerns the people of the city. Ex-
cluding boats owned by private persons and used for private purposes,
there are about a,4oo boats employed in trade and passenger traffic.
The greater portion of the grain and wood imported by river is brought
in large barges not unlike canal barges. These are towed or poled
uh-stream and drop down the river with the current. There are two
kinds of barge. The larger will carry a cargo of 80o to z,ooo maunds,
while the smaller can carry 40o maunds. One of the most common
form of boats is the dund~a, a flat-bottomed boat, about 5o to 6o feet in
length, and about 6 feet in width, drawing about z feet of water.
A high school is maintained by the State with an average daily
attendance of 3a6 in rgoo-r, and several primary schools are scattered
about in the various muhatlas. Excellent results
Education, are said to be attained; but though the quality may
bc~ good, the quantity is small.