SULT~LNl'UR DISTRiCT r3i
well-wôoded villagés ; whilé ri the south, in strûng cpntrast tô this
fertile tract, are widesprèad grid plains and swampy jhils and tnarshés.
The chief river is the Gumti; which ènters the' District àt its north-
wéstern corner ànd, after flowing in an exçeedingly tortuous south-
easterly course through thé centre, passes oût àt the south-éast: Its
bed lies below the surface ôf, the country, and is at first bàdly,defined,
bût high banks are found in the latter part ~f its course. There àré
several small stréams, the chief being the Majhoi, which forms part
of the boundary betwéeri Fyzâbàd and Sultànpur. A numbér of
shallow jhiZs or swamps are found, bût none of'considerable `sizé ôr
Thé geological formation of the District is entirely àlluvial, bu.t'
kankar or calcareous liméstone is common.
1'hé flora presents no peculiaritïes. The only jungle of, any size
surrounds Rdmnagar in the south-west, though a few patches of dhhk
(Butea frondosa) are found elséwherè. SûlCânpur is, however, well
wooded, ànd contains màgnificent grovés of mango, jâmun (Eûgenüz
jambolana), ànd ynahuâ (Bassia latifolia).
Wild animals are very few 3n number ; the chiéf are wolves, jackals,
and in places nilgai and wild hog. Small game, such as partridge ànd
qûail, ànd in the cold season watér-fowl and snipe, are common ; ànd
fish àbound in the rivers, jhils, and large tanks.
The climate is mild and healthy. West winds prevail from October
to June, gradually increasing in strength as the hot season approaches.
The average monthly températuré ranges from 65° in January to go°
or roo° in May. Frosts are uncommon.
Over the whole District the annual rainfall averages 43 inches, the
north rècéiving slightly more than thé south. Gréat variations are not
uncommon; in ,i8gq the fall was only ng inches, and in r8g4 as much
as gr inches:
Popular legend, as usual in Oudh, connects several places in the
District with episodes in'the R~,mâyana. The old town bf Sult~rrpur
borë the name of Kusabhavanpur, àfter Kusà, son History.
of Râmà, who is said to have founded it: At the
périod of the Muhammadan conquest the District was held by the
Bhars; but no places of importancè were 'situated within it; and nô
references to it càn be traced in the 1?ersian historians Locàl tradition
assèrts than Kusabhavànpur wàs conquèred by Alà-ud-din; but the
name of the conqueror is probably a mistàke The District formed
part of the Jaunpur kingdom in the fifteenth century, atjd on thé
dôwnfall of the Lodi , dynasty beéame incôr~orated with .the Delhi
empire.. Under thè redistribution màde by Akbàr the prësènt areà
fell partly in the Sûbah 'of Oudh and partly in that of Aliah~:bàd, but
z5o years later the whole District came under the Nàwâb of Oudh