AGRIC UL TURF I 59
the other through the: Pārdi and Chikhli tcclukas near I:he foot of the
eastern hills. Light soil is commonest near the banks of thé Tāpti,
Ambika, and Auranga rivers. This is the richest soil of the District,
producing in rapid succession the most luxuriant crops. Patches of
Lesar are to be found in almost every part of the District. 1'he most
striking feature in agriculture is tht: difference between the tillage
of the ujli or fair races, and that of the kdla or dark aboriginal cultiva
tors. The dark races ordinarily use only the rudest processes ; grow
little save the coarser kinds of grain, seldom attemptin; to raise wheat
or millet ; and have no implements for weeding or cleaning the fields.
After sowing their crops they leave the land, and only return some
months later for the harvest. As soon as they have gathered in their
crops, they barter the surplus grain for liquor. In th.e more settled
parts of the District, however, the dark races are now improving their
mode of tillage. 'l'he fair cultivators, on the other hand, who own the
rich alluvial soil of the lowlands, are among the most industrious and
intelligent in Western India.
The District is almost entirely ryotwāri, with some in~cm lands. The
chief statistics of cultivation in r qo3-4 are shown below, in square
Titluka. Total Cultivated. Irrigated. Cultivable gorests.
_ . area. waste.
Olpād , _-___; 3 - _ _ _
9 _ 5 9
l~Iāndvi z8o t 50 ... 31 63
Chorāsi 11q g3 1 z ,
Pārdoli zz2 1t)5 z 2 1
Jalālpttr 186 txo 4 5
Chikhli 168 t33 4 i3 1
I3ulsār zo8 t6z 4 10 4
Pārdi . _. G3 _ 4 _ z 1 -3
1'otal 1,653* r,174 zz 73 7z
v 'rhe area for which statistics are not available is 36 square miles. The figures of
area are based upon the latest information.
Rice and jozerür are the staple crops, with an area of r 5 7 and r ~ z
square miles respectively. Rice is grown chiefly on the black or red
soil in the neighbourhood of tanks or ponds, with vāl or castor oil as
a second crop. ,jowdr is largely grown in the northern part of the
District. Cotton covers r54 square miles, chiefly in tht Tāpti valley;
it is also spreading south. Kodra forms the food of the poorest classes.
Among pulses the most important is tur (3q square miles); vāl
occupies q4 square miles. Wheat and b~jra occupy 56 and rq. square
miles respectively. In the south of the District castor oil is extensively
cultivated. Efforts have from time to time been made to improve the
staple of the local cotton, and an improved variety of sugar-cane from