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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, p. 164.

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of operations performed z,gzx. The expenditure on medical relief was
Rs. gq,ooo, of which Rs. x 7,00o was met from Local and municipal
`The number of persons successfully vaccinated in xgo3-4 was
x6,ogx, representing the proportion of z5•3 Per x,ooo of population,
which is slightly above the average for the Presidency.
Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, voL ü (Surat and Broach)
Surat City. - Head-quarters of Surat District, Bon7bay, and the
former seat of a Presidency under the East India Company, situated in
z x° x z' N. and q z° So' E., on the southern bank of the river `Tâpti ;
dďstant from the sea x4 miles by water, xo miles by land. It was
once the chief commercial city of India, and is still an important
nxercantile place, though the greater portion of its export and import
trade has long since been transferred to Bombay. Surat is a station
on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, x67 miles from
During the eighteenth century Surat probably ranked as the most
populous city of India. As late as x 7q7 its inhabitants were estimated
at 800,000 persons ; and though this calculation is
Population. doubtless Excessive, the real numbers must have
been very high. With the transfer of its trade to Bombay the num-

bers rapidly fell off: In x8x x an official report returned the popula
tion at z5o,ooo persons, and in x8x6 at xz4,4c>6. In x84q, when the
fortunes of Surat reached their lowest ebb, the number of inhabi-
tants amounted to only 80,000. Thenceforward the city began to
retrieve its position. By x85x the total had risen to 8q,5o5; in
x8gz it stood at xoq,855; in x88x at xoq,844; in x8gx at xoq,zzq;
and in xgox at xxq,3o6. Ia is now the third largest city in the
Presidency. The population. in xgox included. 85,577 Hindus, zz,8zx
Muhammadans, 5,754 Pârsis, and 4,6gx Jains. Thé Pârsis and high
caste Hindus form the wealthy classes ; the Musalmâns are in
depressed circumstances, except the Bohrâs, many of whom are
prosperous traders, and whose head, called `the Mullâ of the Bohrâs,'
resides here. Fondness for pleasure and ostf;ntation characterize all
classes and creeds in Surat alike. Caste feasts and processions are
more common and more costly than elsewhere. Fairs, held a few
miles away in the country, attract large crowds of gaily dressed men
and children in bright bullock-carts. "l'he Pârsis join largely in these
entertainments, besides holding their own old-fashioned feasts in their
public hall. The Bohrâs are famous for their hospitality and good
living. The extravagant habits engendered by former commercial
prosperity have survived the wealth on which they were founded.
Surat lies on a bend of the Tâpti, where the river suddenly sweeps
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