Bàjaur, Swàt, and $unes; but hiar successor, Seleucus, twenty years
later made over these . territo s to Chandragupta. The inhabitants'
were in..thosé days of Indian ôrigin, Buddhism béing the prevailing-
religion ; and they remained thus almost undisturbed under their own.
kings until ahe fifteenth century. They were the ancestors of the non- ,
Pathàn tribes-e, g: Gùjars; Torwàls, Garhwis, &c.-who are now con-
fined: o Bashkàr of Dir and the Swàt Kohistàn.
The : invasion of the Yùsufzai and othér Pathàn tribes of Khakhai
descent, aided by the Utman Khel, then began ; and. by the sixteenth
century the Yùsufzai were in possession of Buner, Lower Swàt, and the
Panjkara valley ; the Gigiànis and Tarkilanris had established them-
selvesin.Bàjaur, and the Utmàn Khel in the country still occupied by
t~±~m. The advent of these Pathàn invaders introduced the Muharn
madan religion throughout these countries. At this timé the emperor
Bàbar, by a diplomatic marriage with the daughter of Malik Shàh
Mansùr, the head of thé Yùsufzai clans, and by force of arms,
established his sovereignty throughout Bàjaur (except Jandol), the
Panjkora valley as far as its junction with the Bàjaur, and Lower Swàt.
Upper Swàt, which was still held by the aboriginal Swàtis under Sultàn
Udais or Wais, tendered a voluntary submission, claiming protection
from the invader, which Bàbar gave. In Humàyün's reign, however,
the advance was continued; and the Yùsufzai overran the Sheringal
portion of Dir and Upper Swàt as .far as Ain, beyond which hey have
scarcely advanced to this day. Humàyûn's yoké was rejeçted by them,
and even Akbar in r584 could exact no more than a nominal submis-
sion. Such degree of peace as obtains among independent Pathàw
tribes was enjoyed by the Yùsufzai and their neighbours, until a fruitful
cause of dissension arose in Dir in the person of a religious reformer
named Bazid, called by his adherents the Pir-i-Roshan, whose chief.
opponent was Akhund Darweza Bàba, the historian of the'Yùsufzai.
The-heresy of the Pir and the constant depredations of the cQirkbatants
on either side at length compelled interferen~~. Zain Khân, Kôkaltàsh,
was deputed by thé governor of Kàbul teidrbz~ing the tribes to reason,
and after five years' fighting and fort-building he effected in r595 a
thorough conquest of the . country. By 2658, however, in which year
Aurangzeb ascended the throné, the lesson had been forgotten. The
tribes refused to pay revenue, declared .their independence, and main-
twined it till the time of Nàdir Shàh, whose suceés'sors, Ahmad Shàh
Durràni and Timùr Shàh, kept their hold on the country. The grasp
was not altogether lost by those who came after ; and, whén Aürn.Khàn
attacked the Sikhs in r823, the Yùsufzai sent a large contingent with
his army: They were defeated, and Ranjit Singh entésed Feshàwar,~
but did not essay a farther advancé into thé northern hills.
In i8zq the colony of Hindustàni fanatics, which still exists in the