runs for 2q. miles, and then dividing, runs north-east by the Thal-
ghat to Nasik and south-east by the Borghat to Poona. Two main
lines of road run eastward, the Agra road across the Thalghat to
Nasik and the Poona road by way of the Borghat. Since the estab-
lishment of Local funds, many new lines of roads have been made;
and in 1903-4 there were 708 miles of roads in the District, of
which 327 miles were metalled. Of the latter, 133 miles of Provin.
cial and 139 miles of local roads are maintained by the Public Works
department. Avenues of trees have been planted along 357 miles.
During the nineteenth century three causeways were made between
the islands in the neighbourhood of Bombay city. The first joined
Sion in Bombay with Kurla in Salsette, the second joined Mahim in Bom-
bay with Bondra in Salsette, and the third joined Kurla in Salsette with
Chembur in Trombay. The Sion causeway was begun in 1798 and fin-
ished in 1805 at a' cost of Rs. 50,000. In 1826 its breadth was doubled,
and it was otherwise improved at a further outlay of Rs. 40,ooo. The
Sion causeway is 935 yards long and 24 feet wide. In 1841 Lady Jam-
setji Jijibhoy offered Rs. 45,000 towards making a causeway between
Mahim and Bandra. The work was begun in 1843, and before it was fin-
ished Lady Jamsetji increased her first gift to Rs. I,55,8oo. The cause-
way was completed at a total cost of Rs. 2,04,ooo, and was opened in
1845•, It is 3,6oo feet long and 30 feet wide, and in the centre has
a bridge of 4 arches, each 29 feet wide. The Chembur causeway was
built about 1846, and is 3,105 feet long and from 22 to 24 feet wide.
Thana, like the rest of the Konkan, is practically free from the effects
of drought. The earliest famine of which information is available took
place in 1618. In that year at Bassein the famine
was so severe that children were openly sold by their Famine.
parents to Musalman brokers, until the practice was stopped by the
Jesuits. The great famine of 1790 interrupted the progress of Sal-
sette. The exodus caused by Maratha raids in the Deccan led to
scarcity in the Konkan in 1802. Of seasons marked by more or
less general dearth, the chief are : 1839, when remissions of about
3 lakhs had to be granted; 1848, when most of the I salt' rice crop
failed owing to high spring-tides. In 1899 the rainfall was unfavour-
able and caused distress in some parts of the District, but the area
affected was only one-tenth of the total.
The District is divided into three subdivisions, in charge of two
Assistant Collectors and one Deputy-Collector. It comprises the
tdlukas of BASSEIN, BHIWANDI, DAHANU, KALYAN,
Administration. MIJRBAD, SALSETTE, SHAHAPUR, and VADA, .
the petty subdivisions (pethas) of Umbargaon and Mokhada being
included in the Dahanu and Vida tdlukas. The Collector is ex-ofrio
Political Agent of the Jawhar State.
VOL. XXIII. U