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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, p. 303.

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was contributed by Local and municipal funds. A lunatic asylum at
Navapada had 310 inmates in 1904, and is overcrowded.
The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was
r9,i2o, representing the proportion of 23.6 per r,ooo, which is slightly
below the average for the Presidency. Since r9oo vaccination has been
compulsory in Bandra and Kurla towns.
[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xiii (Parts i and ii), and
vol. xiv (1882).]
Thana'Town.-Head-quarters of Thana District, Bombay, and also
of the Salsette tdluka, situated in 19 12' N. and 72 59' E., on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 21 miles north-east of Bombay city.
Population (igor), 16,oii. Thana is prettily situated on the west
shore of the Salsette creek, in wooded country. The fort, the Portu-
guese cathedral, a few carved and inscribed stones, and several reser-
voirs, are now the only signs that Thana was once an important city.
At the close of the thirteenth century the fortunes of Thana seem to
have been at their highest. It was the capital of a great kingdom,
with an independent ruler. It was celebrated for producing tanushi,
a kind of striped cotton cloth, which is still known as Thana cloth. In
11318 Thana was conquered by Mubarak Khilji, and a Muhammadan
governor was placed in charge. A few years later four Christian
missionaries were murdered here by the new rulers. In 1529, terrified
by the defeat of the Cambay fleet and the burning of the Bassein
coast, ` the lord of the great city of Thana' became tributary to the
Portuguese. This submission did not save him in the war that
followed. The city was thrice pillaged, twice by the Portuguese and
once by the Gujaratis. It was then, under the treaty of December,
1533, made over to the Portuguese. Under Portuguese rule Thana
entered on a fresh term of prosperity. In 1739, with the loss of
Bassein, the Portuguese power in Thana came to an end. In 1177,
the English, urged by the news that a fleet had left Portugal to recover
Salsette and Bassein, determined to gain possession of Thana. Nego-
tiations for its cession failing, a force was dispatched to take it by
force. On December 28, 1774, the fort was stormed, and the greater
part of the garrison put to the sword.
Thana has been a municipal,town since 1863, with an average
income during the decade ending igor of Rs. 37,000. In r903-4 the
income was Rs. 38,ooo. The only public works of importance are the
Pokarna water-works which supply the town. Thana being less than an
hour's journey from Bombay, many Government officials and business
men now reside there, visiting Bombay daily. The town contains the
usual public offices, a Sub-Judge's court,, a civil hospital, and a dis-
pensary. The chief Portuguese building is the fort, now used as a
jail. It was built in 1737. Besides the civil hospital and a dispensary,
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