326 THARRA WADD Y DISTRICT
the circle (or taih) thugyi, but drew no -commission. The system of
collection by village headmen is now being introduced as circles fall
vacant. At present there are seventeen circles in which there are
circle thugyis, who draw full commission, while fourteen circles have
recently been broken up, and the revenue in them is now collected
by 338 village headmen.
The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the growth of the
revenue since 11880-r
1880-1. 1890-1. 1900-1. 1903-4.
Land revenue 3,50 5„0 8,50 111,22
Total revenue 8,yo 9,90 115,98 23,27
The total revenue for 11903-4 includes Rs. 3,77,000 from capitation tax
and Rs. 5,17,000 from excise.
There is a District cess fund, maintained chiefly by a levy of 110 per
cent. on the total land revenue, and administered by the Deputy-Com-
missioner, for the upkeep of roads and the provision of other local
necessities. Its income in 11903-4 was Rs. 1,60,7oo, and of this total
Rs. 63,000 was spent on public works.
There are three municipalities, THONzr,:, LETPADAN, and GYOBIN-
GAUx ; and two town committees, ZIGON and MINHI..A.
The police are under a District Superintendent, who has two sub-
divisional officers with jurisdictions corresponding to the civil sub-
divisions. The strength of the civil police force has been recently
considerably augmented, and now consists of the following: 4 inspec-
tors, 3 chief head constables, 9 head constables, 43 sergeants, and 406
constables. '].'here are 11 i police stations and 4 police outposts in the
District. Military police are stationed at Letpadan, Minhla, Monyo,
Gyobingauk, Zigon, and Tapun, and also at the District head-quarters.
There are no jails or reformatories, convicted prisoners being sent
to the Rangoon and Insein jails to serve out their sentences. There is,
however, a lock-up for the temporary detention of prisoners at the
The standard of education is high even for Burma. Although the
proportion of literate males, 48•4 per cent.,. does not exceed that of the
illiterate, as it does in a few of the Upper Burma Districts, it is higher
than in any other District of Lower Burma except Thayetmyo. For
males and females together the proportion is 27.6 per cent. Education
is chiefly in the hands of religious bodies, Buddhist monks, French
Roman Catholic priests, and American Baptist missionaries. The
number of pupils was 2,615 in 118811, 5,646 in 118911, and 9,4211 in igoi.
In 1903-4 there were 21 secondary, 1146 primary, 3o elementary
(private), and 3 special schools, attended by 10,470 pupils (1,870