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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, p. 405.


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TQBA-KAKAR RANGE 405
a new and 'capacious channel by which, it found its way to the
Brahmaputra. In the early part of the nineteenth century the river
again altered its course, forsaking a westward loop about 40 miles
in length for a more direct course eastwards. It has since adhered
to the course then formed, but with numerous encroachments on
its banks, which have left in the west of Rangpur District a maze
of old watercourses and stagnant marshes. These render it almost
impossible, to trace the former course of these rivers, and have caused
at the same time great confusion in their nomenclature. In parts
of its course the Karatoya is known as the Burhi (I old') Tista,
and its broad sandy channel in many places indicates the route
followed by the Tista according to Major Rennell's survey. ;
Titagarh.-Town in the Barrackpore subdivision of the Twenty-four
Parganas District, Bengal, situated in 22 45' N. and 88 22' E.,,
on the left bank of the Hooghly river, with a station on the Eastern
Bengal State Railway. Population (rgor), 16,065, of whom 11,461
are males. Titagarh was at one time a fashionable place of residence
for Europeans, but it is now a busy commercial town containing
four jute-mills and a paper-mill. It was formerly included within the
South Barrackpore municipality, but in 1895 it was constituted a
separate municipality. The income during the nine years since the
separation has averaged Rs. 1g,ooo, and the expenditure Rs. 16,ooo.
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 40,000, including a loan of Rs. 13,000
from Government, Rs. 1 i,ooo derived from a tax on houses and lands,
and Rs. 12,ooo realized from a conservancy rate ; the expenditure was
Rs. 25,000.
Toba-Kakar Range.-Mountain range (from 30 22' to 32 4' N.
and from 66 23' to 69 52' E.) in the Zhob and Quetta-Pishin Dis-
tricts of Baluchistan, which forms the boundary between Baluchistan and
Afghanistan, and at the same time the watershed between India and
Central Asia. It is an offshoot of the Safed Koh, with three parallel
ridges gradually ascending in a south-westerly direction from a height
of about 5,000 feet near the Gomal to the peaks of Sakir (10,125 feet),
Kand (10,788 feet), and Nigand (9,438 feet) in the centre. Thence
it descends towards the west and, opposite Chaman, takes a sharp turn
to the south-west, continuing under the name of the Khwaja Amran
and Sarlath. Eventually it merges into the Central Makran Range,
after a total length of about 300 miles. The country between the
Gomal and the Kand peak, which is drained by the Kundar and Zhob
rivers, is known, from its inhabitants as Kakar Khorasan. The part
to the westward of the Kand peak is called Toba, and is inhabited
chiefly by Achakzai Afghans. The range has never been entirely
surveyed. The higher elevations consist of wide plateaux, intersected
on either side by deep river valleys. In winter the cold on these
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