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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 24, p. 1.


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IMPERIAL GAZETTEER
OF INDIA
VOLUME XXIV
Travancore State (Tiruvdnkdr, 72ruvdlumkodi, `the abode of
the Goddess of Prosperity').-Native State in political relations with
the Government of Madras, affairs in it and the adjoining State of
Cochin being controlled by the Resident in Travancore and Cochin.
It takes its name from Tiruvankod (Tiruviddmhodu) in Eraniel tdluk,
30 miles south of the capital, TRIVANDRUM, in ancient times the chief
town of a small principality which subsequently grew into the present
State. It lies in the extreme south-west of the Indian Peninsula, be
tween 8 4' and io 21' N. and 76 14' and 77 37' E. It is bounded
on the north by the State of Cochin and the Madras District of Coim-
batore ; on the east by the lofty range of the Western Ghats, beyond
which lie the Districts of Coimbatore, Madura, and Tinnevelly, the line
of demarcation passing along the summit of the Ghats ; on the south
by the Indian Ocean; and on the west by the Arabian Sea. Its fron-
tiers are thus defined by natural features on all sides except the north,
where portions of the State of Cochin at several points intervene be-
tween it and the sea in the north-west. Its greatest length from north
to south is 174 miles, and its greatest width, near the northern boun-
dary, 75 miles. Its breadth is very irregular, gradually diminishing
from the north and converging to a point at the southern extremity;
the average width is about 40 miles. In shape, the State is triangular,
the apex being at CAPE COMORIN. Its area, according to recent mea-
surements, is 7,091 square miles. Of this, more than 2,500 square
miles are covered with forests, jungle, and backwaters; and about 2,000
square miles by low chains of hills, a portion of which is available for
pasturage.
The State is perhaps the most beautiful and most fertile area in all
Southern India. It was thus described by Lieut. Conner in his report
on the survey made at the beginning of last century:-

'The face of the country presents considerable diversity, although
its general character, except the southern parts, is extremely abrupt and
mountainous. The coast, for a short distance along the borders of
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