UDA YAGIRI TAL UK 107
The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to
RS. 2,48,ooo. The greater part of the tdluk is an open plain, but the
south contains a large portion of the Anaimalai Hills, and consequently
between half and a third of the tdluk is covered with forest. It is
traversed by the upper waters of the Amaravati, which irrigate a small
area. The rainfall is small, averaging only 22 inches annually. Most
of the land is red earth, but there are tracts of black cotton soil, and
the area under cotton is large.
Udamalpet Town.-Head-quarters of the tdluk of the same name
in Coimbatore District, Madras, situated in 1o° 36' N. and 77° 15' E.
Population (igoi), 10,503, of whom about one-eighth are Muham-
madans. It is an important centre of trade in cotton, grain, and cloth ;
and its chief inhabitants belong to commercial classes, such as Komatis,
Nattukottai Chettis, and Muhammadans. Its blacksmiths are well-
known for their skill. A District Munsif is stationed here.
Udayagiri Taluk (r).-Northernmost Agency tdluk of Ganjam
District, Madras, lying between 19° 5o' and 20° 23' N. and 84° 13' and
84° 39' E., with an area Of 504 square miles. It is a wild tract, largely
covered with hill and jungle and intersected by rapid torrents. The
population, consisting mostly of Khonds, was 76,858 in 1901, com-
pared with 73,384 in 1891. They live in 401 villages. The tdluk
consists of the Goomsur Maliahs and the Korada and Ronaba estates,
the head-quarters being at Goomsur-Udayagiri. The Ronaba chief
pays nothing to Government; the Korada chief pays Rs. 15 yearly. In
the Goomsur Maliahs, the Government derives revenue only from the
Chokkapad khandam, managed as a ryotwdri area, which yielded a
land revenue of RS. 2,500 in 1903-4. A special feature of Udayagiri
is that a large extent has been permanently reclaimed from jungle and
is cultivated with ° dry crops.' The Khonds who inhabit it are no
longer able to depend on hunting or jungle produce for a living, and
are much more liable to suffer from famine than those in Balliguda.
They are, however, better educated.
Udayagiri Taluk (2).--7aluk of Nellore District, Madras, lying
between 14 35' and 15° 7' N. and 79° 5' and 79° 38' E., with an area,
including zatninddri villages, of 871 square miles, of which Government
villages occupy 360 square miles. The population in I9oi was 95,173,
compared with 100,227 in 1891. The Nluk contains 134 villages, the
head-quarters being at UDAYAGIRI (population, 4,021). The demand
on account of land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to
Rs. 74,ooo. The extreme north and north-west of the tdluk are
occupied entirely by the villages of the KnLAHASTI ESTATE. The west
is hilly; and the soil is stony and sterile towards the hills, becoming
more fertile towards the east. The Manneru and its affluent the
Pillaperu drain the north, and the Boggeru with its affluents the south.
VOL. XXIV. H