VFI,1ORF .SURDJVL4ION 303
quarters of a deputy-tahsilddr. The great Vedaranniyani salt swamp,
which covers a tract about 30 miles long by 4 or 5 miles wide; lies to
the west of the town. It is filled by two periodical high tides which
occur about full moon in May and June respectively. About z feet
of water is retained by means of an earthen bank with sluices ; as it
evaporates, salt is formed in large translucent blocks. This is stored
in the Government factory at Vedaranniyam, and conveyed thence to
the depot at Negapatam by the VEDARANNIVAM CANAL.
Vedavati.-River in Southern India. See HAGARL
Vekaria.-Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay.
Vellanad.-Village in the Nedumangad tdluk of Travancore State,
Madras, situated in 8° 34' N. and 77° 3' E. Population (1901), x,326.
Plumbago mining is carried on here by a European company.
Vellar (`White river').--River in Madras, formed by the junction
of two streams called the Vasishtanadi and the Swetanadi, which rise
in Salem District and receive the drainage of the Pachaimalai, Kollai-
malai, and Kalrayan Hills. They unite on the southern border of South
Arcot District ; and the Vellar constitutes for some distance the boun-
dary between Trichinopoly and South Arcot, and then flows due east-
wards across the latter into the Bay of Bengal at Porto Novo in 11°
32' N. and 79^ 46' E. Its total length is about 135 miles and its catch-
ment area 2,66o square miles. Much of its course is very tortuous,
and it is continually eating away its steep banks on one side or other.
Near Porto Novo its channel was straightened by the department of
Public Works in 1848. Its chief tributary is the Manimuktanadi, which
rises on the eastern slope of the Kalrayan Hills. There are several
dams across this, and two others have rendered the water of the main
river available for irrigation in South Arcot. The upper of these is at
Pelandorai and the lower at Settiyatoppu (Shatiatope). Upon the latter
is built the bridge which carries the road from Madras to the south.
:These dams irrigate 1o,ooo and 31,ooo acres, and the net revenue due
to improvements is Rs. 19,ooo and Rs. 8o,ooo. This represents a
return on the capital outlay Of 3 per cent. and nearly 37 per cent.
respectively. Two more dams across the river have been proposed.
The Vellar is affected by the tide for 7 or 8 miles from its mouth,
and for part of this distance it is navigable by small boats of 4 tons
burden at all seasons of the year. Two miles south of its mouth it is
supposed to meet, out at sea, the waters of the Coleroon ; and once a
year in the Tamil month Masi (February-March) the idol from Sri-
mushnam is taken in procession to the shore opposite this propitious
spot, and the people bathe in the sea there.
Vellore Subdivision.-Subdivision of North Arcot District, Ma-
dras, consisting of the hiluks of VELLORE, GUDIYATTAM, and ARCOT,
and the KANGUNDI zamindari tahsil