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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 24, p. 337.

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[Further particulars of the District will be found in the District
Manual, by D. F. Carmichael (1869).]
Vizagapatam Subdivision.-Subdivision of Vizagapatam District,
Madras, consisting of the zanzindari tahsils of VIZAGAPATAM and
SRUNGAVARAPPUKOTA (including Agency area).
Vizagapatam Tahsil. -Coast tahsil in Vizagapatam District,
Madras, lying between 17 38' and 17 51' N. and 83 11' and
83 25' E., with an area of 173 square miles. The population in
1901 was r io,652, compared with 97,;176 in 189x. The tahsil con-
tains one town, VIZAGAPATAM (population, 40,892), the head-quarters
of the District and the tahsil ; and 76 villages. The demand for
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 16,9oo. A great part
of the tahsil is covered by small ranges of bare rocky hills running
up to 1,8oo feet. On one of these ranges, to the north of Vizagapatam
town, called Kailasa, an attempt was once made to establish a
Vizagapatam Town.-Head-quarters of the District of the same
name, Madras, situated in 17 42' N. and 83 18' E., 484 miles by
railway from Madras and 547 from Calcutta. It is a flourishing seaport,
lying in the angle of the bay formed by the projection seawards of the
prominent headland known as the DOLPHIN'S NOSE. A little farther
north along the coast, pleasantly situated on a ridge of low hills facing
the sea, is the suburb of Waltair, one of the favourite stations in
the Presidency, where most of the District officials reside. To the
west of the town lies a large backwater through which a small stream
meanders to the sea, and on the north and south this is bounded by
two parallel ridges of low hills about i,8oo feet in height, and 4 miles
apart. The bay in the angle between the coast and the Dolphin's Nose
forms the present anchorage; but if the proposed scheme for dredging
this backwater and river and forming; an inner harbour and docks
within them is carried out, Vizagapatam will have the finest harbour
along the Bay of Bengal, safe in all weathers, and enabling ocean-going
ships to load and unload at the dockside.
The story of Vizagapatam dates from the establishment in the seven-
teenth century by the East India Company of one of the earliest
factories on the east coast. But historically the town can boast of
little interest, the only events of any importance that have occurred
being the two occupations of the factory, in 1689 by Aurangzeb's
forces, and in 1757 by the French under Bussy.
The population in 1901 was 40,892, occupying 7,741 houses. In
1891 it was only 34,487, and the marked increase is largely due to
the opening of the East Coast Railway. The population includes
36,346 Hindus, 2,761 Muhammadans, and 1,749 Christians. The
majority of them reside in Vizagapatani proper ; but there are large
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