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Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 251.

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Ghaznavid capital in India, was intimately associated with the varying fortunes of a series of dynasties of Central Asian or Afghan origin. Reaching its apogee during the Mughal era, Lahore remains a center of Islamic culture in contemporary Pakistan.

The two large-scale maps of portions of Calcutta (plate XII.B.1, maps (h) and (i)), the corresponding map of Lahore (XII.B.2 (a)), and the maps of the twelve other cities with which we are dealing are all presented with identical scales and legends. Nevertheless, differences among our original sources were such that varying degrees of generalization may be ap- parent from one map to another. Similarly, specific features indicated on some maps will be missing or incompletely repre- sented on others. The key aspect of each city (Calcutta and Lahore excepted), the one providing its raison d'être and the basis for its selection for this atlas, is indicated on the map di- rectly after its name, as is the date to which the map relates. Relatively modern views, ranging in date from 1920 to 1963, have been provided for all of our cities except Kandahar, the source for which was prepared by British army surveyors dur- ing the Second Afghan War. Although in recent times Kanda- har has grown well beyond its partially destroyed medieval city walls, the character of the inner city remains essentially as we have presented it.

Reverting to our special consideration of Calcutta and La- hore, we have endeavored to treat both cities along parallel lines. In addition to the large-scale representations referred to above, we have depicted their territorial growth over time (re- grettably, only since 1850 in the case of Lahore); the nature of their land use; their population growth since 1872, with proportions by religious communities also shown; the age, sex, and civil status of the populations as of the 1931 and 1961 censuses; and the surrounding areas largely served by and, in turn, serving each. For each city a chronology is presented in- dicating some of the highlights of its history. For Calcutta, map (h) provides a detailed view of the urban core as of 1850, which serves as the basis for comparison with the view in map (i) of a century later, by which time the center of urban ac- tivity had shifted somewhat toward the south. Regrettably, a comparable pair of views could not be provided for Lahore. Also shown, for Calcutta only, is the ethnic composition of the population by urban wards about 1961. Comparable infor- mation for Lahore is lacking; but, as the latter city is far more homogeneous in religious and linguistic composition, a map paralleling map (k) for Calcutta would not be of very great interest.

The maps in this atlas for Calcutta and Lahore were pre- pared before data were available from the Indian Census of 1971 and the Pakistani Census of 1972. The former shows that the population of the Calcutta conurbation has grown to just over 7 million and that the city of Calcutta proper now has more than 3.14 million inhabitants. The relatively slow growth rates since 1961, 22.1% for the conurbation and 7.3% for the city—both lower than the Indian national average and sub- stantially lower than the average growth rate for cities—be- speak the acute urban congestion in and around Calcutta and the multitude of social, economic, and political problems the area currently faces. By contrast, Lahore's population has risen in eleven years by 65.7% to a 1972 total of 2.15 million, re- flecting the growing prosperity of Punjab, for which it is the principal economic, cultural, and political center.


For Calcutta

Unbound Maps: T. Black (1841); India, Survey of India (1941), (1957); Simm (1858); Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1842); Thacker's Press and Directories, Ltd. (1943).

Other Works: N. K. Bose (1965), (1968); Calcutta, Mu- nicipal Corporation of (n.d. [1972]); H. E. A. Cotton (1907); R. B. K. Deb (1905); W. K. Firminger (1906); India, Census (various years, but especially 1951, vol. VI, part III, listed un- der Government Documents); N. R. Kar (1959), (1960), (1962); E. Latimer (1966); R. Murphey (1964); John Mur- ray (publ.) (various years, 1901–65, listed under General Ref- erences); E. P. Richards (1914); A. C. Roy (1966, listed under Atlases); West Bengal, Calcutta Metropolitan Planning Orga- nization (1962), (1966).

For Lahore

Unbound Maps: India, Survey of India (1921), (1935a); H. A. D. Lawrence (1867); Pakistan, Survey of Pakistan (1954).

Other Works: M. Baqir (1952), (1963); Guide to Lahore (n.d. [196?]); M. Latif (1892); John Murray (publ.) (various years, 1901–65, listed under General References); Punjab dis- trict gazetteers (1916, vol. 30.A. see bibliography on plate XIII.C.1); D. Ross (1883); G. Rudduck (1964); T. H. Thorn- ton and J. L. Kipling (1876); M. Waliullah Khan (1964); R. E. M. Wheeler (1950).

Other Cities

Unbound Maps: Ceylon, Survey Dept. (1962, Colombo); India, Survey of India (1929, Gwalior-Lashkar), (1931, Kum- bakonam), (1933a, Bannu), (1933b, Benares/Varanasi), (1933c, Cawnpore/Kanpur), (1933d, Darjeeling), (1935b, Udaipur), (1947, Madura), (1969, New Delhi); J. Wyld (1880, Kandahar).

Other Works: N. Evenson (1966, Chandigarh).

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