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Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 255.

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to A.D. 1976 has a CCV of approximately 3,119 CCUs (1.23 million square miles × 2,536 years ÷ 1 million square mile-years). The number of CCUs in each of the periods considered, similarly derived, is indicated in the lower right corner of figure 14.2.7 To obtain the CCV of a particular region of analysis during a speci- fied period, one need only multiply the number of CCUs in that period by the per- centage of the area of the Indian subcontinent given for that region on figure 14.1. Thus, the number of CCUs in the North Central Region in the Sultanate Period is 15.5% of 394 CCUs or 61.1 CCUs.

Similarly, to derive the CCV of a particular state over a span of time during which its area is known or assumed to be constant, one multiplies its area by the time in question. Thus, the CCV of Pakistan from its creation in August 1947 to the separation of Bangladesh in December 1971 (leaving Jammu and Kashmir and other disputed areas out of consideration) was approximately 366,000 square miles × 24.3 years ÷ 1,000,000 square mile-years, or 8.89 CCUs. But where, as is usually the case, the area of a given state is not constant, deriving the CCV re- quires a summation of the CCVs for each time period when the state was of a specified extent. In the case of Pakistan, to determine the total CCV during the time period of this study we must add to the 8.89 CCUs another 1.56 CCUs for the period from December 1971 to December 1976 (i.e., 311,000 square miles × 5 years ÷ 1,000,000 square mile-years), yielding a total of 10.45 CCUs. In principle, the means of deriving the CCV of any other state or phenomenon exist- ing in space and time is identical to that just outlined.8

BASIC AND DERIVED DATA

Applying the criteria outlined above, sixty-three states and/or dynasties are rec- ognized as having attained major power status over the period of Indian history and are included in this study.9 Of these, only nine were at some time pan-Indian powers. The centers on which these states were based are indicated on figure 14.3 in chronological order of their emergence. The rules governing the placement of those centers are given in the notes accompanying that map.

The most important set of data for this study is that presented in figure 14.4 which indicates for each of our sample of sixty-three powers the specific time span during which it enjoyed supra-regional or, where relevant, pan-Indian status. Fur- ther, figure 14.4, like figure 14.3, indicates in which of the five analytic regions of this study a particular power was based. In preparing figure 14.4, all periods of time were rounded off to the nearest decade. Subsequent analyses in this study are based on counts of the duration of particular phenomena, by decades, as presented in tables 14.1–3.

Figure 14.5 indicates the percentage of the total area of the Indian subcontinent (as depicted in fig. 14.1) that is included in the largest Indian state throughout the time span from 500 B.C. to A.D. 1976.10 This graph synthesizes a major part of the data of a set of sixty-three work graphs, one for each of the major powers con- sidered in this analysis. On each of those graphs the area of the state under con-

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