New Sources (in addition to those in the General Bibliography)
G. Erdosy (1988); R. C. Gaur (1983); A. Ghosh (1973); N. C. Ghosh (1986); K. A. R. Kennedy (1975); M. Lal (1984); M. S. Nagaraja Rao (1978); B. Narasimhaiah (1980); K. P. Nautiyal (1989); T. N. Roy (1983, 1986); K. T. S. Sarao (1989); R. S. Sharma (1987); D. M. Srinivasan (1989); A. Sundara (1975); V. K. Thakur (1981); R. Thapar (1984); V. Tripathi (1975).
N.B. Several edited volumes listed for section II.2–5 also have articles relevant to the Iron Age.
Pp. 8 and 12: On plate II.2, maps (a) and (b) and plate II.6, maps (a), (b), and (i), only modern coast lines should have been indicated (e.g., along the delta of the Ganga). Information on previous coastal configura- tions for the periods in question is too scanty to permit any inferences along the lines we have suggested.
Scholarship since the publication of HASA 1978 has deepened our understanding of the nature of the political, social, and eco- nomic contexts of early history within both South Asia proper and the more or less Indianized cultural realm of Southeast Asia. The new findings and speculations relative to these concerns are, in many cases, not easily elucidated without the drawing of addi- tional maps. For all essential purposes, however, our overview of the spatial extent of ancient polities within South and Southeast Asia remains as it was. The localized articulation of power rela- tionships and of the various types of interactions among groups within the ancient polities is a task that is now being addressed by a number of historians. New works that warrant citation are indi- cated below for the sections and individual map plates for which they are most relevant.
III in General: F. R. Allchin and N. Hammond (1982); O. P. Bhardwaj (1986); G. M. Bongard-Levin (1986); B. O'Leary (1989); G. Pollet, ed. (1987); K. D. Sethna (1989); B. G. Tamaskar (1985).
Plates III.A.1 and 2: V. Mani (1975), under "General Refer- ences."
Plate III.B.1: S. Chattopadhyaya (1977); R. Thapar (1984).
Plate III.B.3: P. H. L. Eggermont (1975); K. Karttunen (1989); J. W. Sedlar (1980).
Plate III.B.4: S. Chattopadhyaya (1977); G. Erdosy (1988).
Plate III.B.5: A. Hirakawa (1990); K. T. S. Sarao (1989).
Plate III.C.1 and 2: G. Erdosy (1988); C. Margabandhu (1985); B. N. Mukherjee (1988); H. P. Ray (1986); S. Shrava (1981).
Plate III.C3: A. Hirakawa (1990); H. P. Ray (1986).
Plate III.C.5: P. D. Curtin (1984); K. Karttunen (1989); H. J. Liu (1988); J. W. Sedlar (1980); D. Sinor, ed. (1990).
Plate III.D.1: A. Agrawal (1989); D. K. Ganguly (1987); S. K. Maity (1975); H. Pathak (1978); K. V. Ramesh, ed. (1974); R. S. Sharma (1987); T. R. Sharma (1989); B. Sheikh Ali (1976); S. Shrava (1981); K. M. Shrimali (1987).
Plate III.D.2: D. P. Dikshit (1980); K. V. Ramesh (1984); K. V. Ramesh, ed. (1984); R. S. Sharma (1987); B. Sheikh Ali (1976); B. Stein (1980), (1984).
Plate III.D.3: I. Mani (1975), under "General References"; L. Rocher (1986).
Plate III.D.4: S. K. Maity (1975).
Plate III.D.6: K. R. Hall (1985).
P. 13, map (a), "VEDIC INDIA": The town of Vinaśana (grid square D3) is incorrectly shown above the confluence of the ancient River Sarasvatī with the D&rtod;&stod;advatī; it should be shown further to the west and below that confluence. The town of Sarya&ntod;āvant, incorrectly shown in the northern part of the Kuruk&stod;etra region (grid square E3), should actually be situated in the southern part of that region. The town of Triplak&stod;a (grid square D3) should have been shown on the right bank of the Yamunā River just to the south of where it emerges onto the Gangetic Plain (grid square E3).
P. 13, map (b), "INDIA AS REVEALED IN THE RĀMĀYA&Ntod;A": Stud- ies to which we did not have access when this map was drawn and others which have appeared subsequently have identified a number of places mentioned in the Rāmāya&ntod;a that do not appear on our map. In his study of the Ayodhyā Kā&ntod;&dtod;a portion of the text, for example, O. P. Bhardwaj (1986) cites a number of places along the route of the messengers sent to fetch Bhārata from Kekaya and along Bhārata's route to Ayodhyā.
P. 14, "INDIA AS REVEALED IN THE MAHĀBHĀRATA": The peo- ple designated as "Yaudheyas" (grid square D3) should properly have been plotted in the vicinity of the town of Rohītaka (grid square E3). The region they occupied was known as "Bahudhānyaka," which should have been shown as a janapada on our map. The people designated as "Yo- gandharas" (grid squares DE3) should have been spelled "Yugandharas."
Pp. 19, 20, and 21: The town of Kali&ndot;ganagara (grid square G6) should properly have been plotted well to the northeast at the site of Sisupalgarh (shown on p. 14 in grid square G5), near modern Bhubaneswar; it is not to be confused with the later Kali&ndot;ganagara (grid square G6) shown on pp. 25–34 (passim). The region of Kali&ndot;ga, as shown on p. 20 (grid squares FG6), should have been shown as extending further to the north- east, as indicated on pp. 19 and 21.
The introductory paragraph relative to Chapter III, above, ap- plies equally to Chapter IV. We noted there the concern of various scholars with the means by which power relationships were spa- tially articulated within various South Asian polities. Much new light has recently been shed on this subject through study of the vast epigraphic corpus from a number of regions of South Asia, especially peninsular India. Epitomizing this line of empirical in- quiry are the statistical analyses of Co&lline;a inscriptions by Karashima and Subbarayalu (1978). These have resulted in detailed, large- scale maps of localized units of governance for large areas of Tamil Nadu. Drawing largely on such research, Stein (1980) has put for- ward a theory of a loosely configured "segmentary state" to ex- plain the nature of the Co&lline;a polity. His suggestion that the model applied as well to many other medieval states in India has found considerable favor among historians and will undoubtedly form a basis for many future investigations.
IV in General: B. O'Leary (1989); B. Stein (1980), (1984); A. Wink (1990).
Plate IV.1: M. Abraham (1988); B. K. K. Deambi (1985); D. P. Dikshit (1980); K. R. Hall (1980); N. Karashima (1984), listed under "General References"; N. Karashima and Y. Subba- rayalu (1978), listed under "General References"; K. V. Ramesh, ed. (1984); A. Rehman (1979); R. S. Sharma (1987); B. Sheikh Ali (1976); Y. Subbarayalu (1973).
Plate IV.2: M. Abraham (1988); C. E. Bosworth (1977); B. K. K. Deambi (1985); K. R. Hall (1980); Y. A. Hashmi (1988); N. Karashima (1984), listed under "General References"; N. Ka- rashima and Y. Subbarayalu (1978), listed under "General Refer- ences"; M. K. Kumari (1985); C. V. Ramachandra Rao (1976); A. Rehman (1979); N. Sethuraman (1980); B. Sheikh Ali (1976); Y. Subbarayalu (1973).
Plate IV.3: M. G. S. Hodgson (1974).
Plate IV.6: K. R. Hall (1985); W. M. Sirisena (1978); G. R. Tibbetts (1979); D. K. Wyatt (1984).
P. 34, "RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SITES, 8TH–12TH CENTU- RIES": Kuruk&stod;etra (grid square E3) is incorrectly shown as a cultural site separate from the site of Sthānvīśvara (to its north) to which it was vir- tually contiguous. The town of Belur (grid square E7 on inset C) is incor- rectly plotted; its correct location is shown on p. 38, map (b) (grid square D7). Additionally, the symbol signifying "temple or shrine with sculp- ture" should have been plotted alongside it.
The introductory observations for sections III and IV, above, are largely applicable for section V as well. It should, addition- ally, be noted that our expanding comprehension of the Sultanate Period of South Asian history is contingent on progress in the ar-
V in General: M. G. S. Hodgson (1974); H. K. Naqvi (1976); B. O'Leary (1989); B. Stein (1980), (1984).
Plate V.1: J. Abu-Lughod (1989); M. S. Ahluwalia (1978); K. N. Chaudhuri (1985), (1988); P. D. Curtin (1984); B. K. K. Deambi (1985); V. A. Hashmi (1988); L. Kwanten (1975); B. F. Manz (1989); S. Neill (1984); T. Raychaudhuri and I. Habib (1982); G. R. Tibbetts (1979).
Plates V.2, 3, and 4: M. Abraham (1988); M. S. Ahluwalia (1978); A. L. Dallapiccola, ed. (1985); B. K. K. Deambi (1985); R. M. Eaton (1978); J. Fritz, M. George, and M. S. Nagaraja Rao (1984); K. R. Hall (1980); N. Karashima (1984), under "General References"; N. Karashima and Y. Subbarayalu (1978), under "General References"; M. K. Kumari (1985); M. S. Na- garaja Rao (1985); G. S. K. Niazi (1990); S. Pathmanathan (1978); C. V. Ramachandra Rao (1976); I. Riazul (1979–82), under "General References"; J. P. V. Somaratne (1975); B. Stein (1989); Y. Subbarayalu (1973); R. Subrahmanyam, comp. (1986).
Plate V.5: A. C. Banerjee (1982); R. M. Eaton (1978); H. K. Sherwani and P. M. Joshi, eds. (1974); M. S. Siddiqi (1979).
Plate V.7: J. Abu-Lughod (1989); M. Aung-Thwin (1985); K. R. Hall (1985); C. Kasetsiri (1976); W. M. Sirisena (1978); G. R. Tibbetts (1979); D. K. Wyatt (1984).
P. 35, title: For "8TH-12TH CENTURIES," read "8TH-13TH CENTU- RIES."
P. 38, "—KHALJĪS AND TUGHLUQS—," and p. 39, "POLITICAL DISINTEGRATION—C. 1390–1450": On both these maps the town of Sarsutī (grid square D3) is incorrectly plotted. The correct location, to the northeast, may be seen on the map on p. 40.
P. 41, map (a), "RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SITES—": The im- portant Jain pilgrimage site of Satru&nmacr;jaya in Gujarat has been omitted; for its proper location see p. 34 (grid square C5).
P. 41, map (b), "SUFI ORDERS,—": Bījāpur should be added as a center of the Qādiri, Shattāri, and Chishti orders of Sufism and Bīdar as a center for the Qādiri order; both sites are located on map (a).
P. 41, map (c), "SAINTS AND POETS OF THE BHAKTI MOVEMENT —": Narasi&mtod;ha Mehta, shown in the box for Gujarat as a 15th-century saint, is now believed properly to have been active in the 16th century and, therefore, should have been plotted on the relevant map on p. 47.
For historical geographic purposes, the most important new work on Mughal India is, without a doubt, Irfan Habib's meticulously documented Atlas of the Mughal Empire (1982). The political and economic detail presented in that exemplary work goes far beyond what we have been able to present in HASA 1978 and will provide benchmark information for many other regional studies. So too will other basic research by scholars at Aligarh Muslim University (e.g., Athar Ali, 1985; and Moosvi, 1987). At a very different scale of enquiry are studies that seek to explain and document the manner of South Asia's integration into the emerging global sys- tem, often following modes of inquiry pioneered by Braudel or the global systems perspective of Wallerstein. S. Chandra, K. N. Chaudhuri, A. Das Gupta, and M. N. Pearson, all cited below, are among the most active historians pursuing such research.
VI in General: K. N. Chaudhuri (1978); S. Gole (1989), listed under "Atlases"; T. Raychaudhuri and I. Habib (1982).
VI.A in General: M. Athar Ali (1985); I. P. Gupta (1986); I. Habib (1982), listed under "Atlases"; B. O'Leary (1989); G. Singh (1988); I. Riazul (1979–82), listed under "General References."
Plate VI.A.1: J.-B.-J. Gentil (1989), listed under "Atlases"; M. Hasan (1985); A. R. Khan (1977); R. Shyam (1978); D. E. Streusand (1989).
Plate VI.A.2: A. R. Khan (1977); S. Moosvi (1987); D. E. Streusand (1989).
Plate VI.A.3: M. A. L. Azad (1990); S. P. Blake (1991); G. C. Dwivedi (1989); R. C. Hallissey (1977); G. J. Kulkarni (1983); J. F. Richards (1975); J. N. Sarkar (1979); A. Wink (1986).
Plate VI.A.4: K. Schomer and H. E. W. McLeod, eds. (1987).
VI.B in General: C. R. Boxer (1979); F. Broeze, ed. (1989); J.
Correia-Afonso (1981); L. De Albuquerque and I. Guerreiro, eds. (1985); T. R. De Souza (1985).
Plate VI.B.1: F. Braudel (1979); S. Chandra (1987); K. N.