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Schwartzberg Atlas, v. , p. 267.

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Chaudhuri (1985), (1990); P. D. Curtin (1984); A. Das Gupta and M. N. Pearson, eds. (1987); B. W. Diffie and G. D. Winius (1977); H. Furber, ed. (1976); J. I. Israel (1989); S. Neill (1985); D. Prakash (1985); G. V. Scammell (1981); N. Steensgaard (1974); I. Wallerstein (1974), (1980), (1989).

Plates VI.B.3, 4, and 5: S. Gole (1980), (1983), (1989), all listed under "Atlases."


P. 47, map (a): "RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SITES—": The note relative to p. 41, map (a) is equally applicable here.

P. 47, map (c), "SAINTS — OF THE BHAKTI MOVEMENT": The saint Dadu died in 1603, not 1660, as indicated in the note "Gujarati Poet Saints" and also at the place of his death in the Rajasthani town of Nārā- yana. For an additional note on Narasi&mtod;ha Mehta, who should have been plotted on this map, see the reference to p. 41, above.

VII. The Contest for Power and the Establishment of British Supremacy, 1707–1857

One consequence of the European commercial penetration and political conquest of South Asia was a burgeoning in the volume and a diversification of the types of documentation of processes and specific events of interest to historians. In particular, maps become, for the period in question, particularly important primary sources. HASA 1978 illustrated some of the better-known Euro- pean maps, but failed to take note of the then little-known, yet noteworthy, corpus of indigenous maps, most of which were un- doubtedly influenced by contacts with European sources. These are abundantly documented in Gole (1989) and are more fully dis- cussed by the editors in J. B. Harley and D. Woodward, eds. (1992). On a different plane, newly uncovered, mainly written, source materials have enabled scholars of the "Subaltern School" to extend the range of historical research to the description and interpretation of aspects of life—often mundane, but nevertheless important—which formerly attracted little notice and which were accorded commensurately little intellectual respect. Some of these studies are among the works cited below.

New Sources

VII in General: C. A. Bayly (1988); W. J. Koenig (1990); P. Moon (1989); R. Shaha (1990); G. Singh (1988); Subaltern Stud- ies) (1982–), listed under "Periodicals and Serials."

Plate VII.A.1: R. B. Barnett (1980); S. Chandra (1982); A. H. Dani, ed. (1989); G. C. Dwivedi (1989); M. H. Fisher (1978); B. Gupta (1987); P. J. Marshall (1987); P. Mehra (1979–80), listed under "General References"; S. C. Misra (1981); S. G. Vaidya (1976); A. Wink (1986).

Plate VII.A.2: R. B. Barnett (1980); C. A. Bayly (1983); P. K. Bhattacharyya (1984); U. N. Chakravorty (1979); K. M. De Silva, ed. (1973); N. B. Dirks (1987); J.-B.-J. Gentil (1988), listed un- der "Atlases"; B. G. Kunte, ed. (1979), listed under "Atlases"; P. J. Marshall (1987); S. C. Misra (1981); S. S. Seetal (1981); A. Wink (1986).

Plate VII.A.3: C. A. Bayly (1983); N. B. Dirks (1987); K. M. De Silva, ed. (1973); B. J. Hasrat (1977); P. J. Marshall (1987); R. K. Parmu (1977); L. Petech (1977); O. B. Pollak (1979); B. R. Sunthankar (1978).

Plate VII.A.6, Atlases: S. Gole (1980), (1983), (1989); H. Gu- rung (1983); B. G. Kunte, ed. (1979).

Plate VII.A.6, Other Published Works: J. B. Harley and D. Woodward, eds. (1992).

Plate VII.B.2: C. A. Bayly (1983); N. Charlesworth (1985); R. E. Frykenberg (1977); R. Guha (1983); M. B. McAlpin (1983); T. R. Metcalf (1979); B. B. Misra (1983); R. Mukherjee (1985); P. Radhakrishnan (1989); R. Ray (1979); E. Stokes (1978); I Wallerstein (1974), (1980), (1989).

Plate VII.B.3: D. Domin (1977); R. Mukherjee (1975).


P. 54, "MUGHAL DISINTEGRATION —": The town designated as "Calicut" in grid square D7 should be "Kalianpur", "Calicut" in grid square D8 is correct.

P. 56, "THE EXPANSION OF BRITISH POWER, —": The legend mis- takenly indicates a distinctive blue color type to signify "States which ceased to exist in the period 1819–57." Such information can be derived from studying the various map notes or from study of plate VII.B.1, but not by reference to the typography of this map.

VIII. Imperial India and the Growth of National Identity

The abundance of new sources cited below attests to the vigor with which historians are reexamining and reinterpreting the sec- ond and final century of British rule in India and the formation during that period of the national consciousness and social identi- ties of Indians, would-be Pakistanis, and numerous other newly politicized ethnic groups. While the HASA 1978 presentation of the territorial aspects of the political history of the period, at least in respect to areas of administration, is not in need of revision, the century was one in which a host of competing regional political, religious, social, and economic movements assumed significance, at both local and national scales, and in which cross-cutting alle- giances often led to complex and shifting political alliances. The aforementioned "Subaltern School" of historians has been in the vanguard in studying these movements, particularly at the local level, and some of the studies they have produced are character- ized by innovative large-scale mapping. By and large, however, most of the movements and the social, economic, and political processes that transformed—and are still transforming—the cul- tural landscape of South Asia since 1857 await careful carto- graphic documentation.

New Sources

VIII in General: C. J. Baker (1984); J. M. Brown (1985); R. Jeffrey, ed. (1978); D. Kumar, ed. (1983); D. A. Low, ed. (1977); B. B. Misra (1990); P. Moon (1989); B. N. Pandey, ed. (1979); R. Shaha (1990); S. Sarkar (1983); G. Singh (1988); Subaltern Studies (1982–), listed under "Periodicals and Serials"; A. M. Zaidi, comp. (1988), listed under "General References."

Plates VIII.A.1 and 2: M. Aris (1979); K. Labh (1974); A. Lamb (1987); J. R. V. Prescott et al. (1977), listed under "At- lases"; N. R. Ray, ed. (1986); D. Waller (1990); K. Warikoo (1989).

VIII.B in General: S. R. Ashton (1982).

Plates VIII.B.3 and 4: D. Page (1982); B. N. Ramusack (1978); F. Robinson (1974); B. R. Tomlinson (1976); S. M. Verma (1990).

VIII.C in General: B. Chandra (1979); D. Gilmartin (1988); N. Mansergh (1979–83), listed under "General References"; B. B. Misra (1976); S. Rittenberg (1988); I. Talbott (1988a), (1988b).

Plate VIII.C.1: W. K. Anderson and S. D. Damle (1987); R. D. Baird, ed. (1981); H. Bechert and R. Gombrich, eds. (1984); R. Gombrich and G. Obeyesekere (1988); W. E. Gustafson and K. W. Jones, eds. (1975); D. Hardiman (1987); K. W. Jones (1976), (1989); M. Juergensmeyer (1982); R. A. Kapur (1986); M. A. Khan, ed. (1985); B. Klyuev (1989); J. R. Macy and E. Zelliott (1980); M. Moore (1985); G. A. Oddie (1977); R. O'Hanlon (1985); M. S. A. Rao (1987); M. S. A. Rao, ed. (1984); M. Roberts, ed. (1979); G. Singh (1988); K. Schomer and H. E. W. McLeod, eds. (1987); R. Weekes (1984), listed under "General References"; R. B. Williams (1984); K. C. Yadav (1988).

Plate VIII.C.2: C. J. Baker (1976); S. Bose (1986); A. R. De- sai, ed. (1979); R. J. Cashman (1975); L. A. Gordon (1974); J. R. McLane (1977); P. Radhakrishnan (1979); M. Roberts, ed. (1979); A. I. Singh (1987); B. R. Tomlinson (1976); K. C. Yadav (1988).

Plate VIII.C.3: I. Ahmad, ed. (1983); C. J. Baker (1976); P. R. Brass and F. Robinson, eds. (1987); K. M. De Silva (1986); M. Hasan (1979); R. Joshi and R. K. Hebsur, eds. (1987, 1988); J. R. McLane (1977); S. Ponnambalam (1983); R. Sisson and S. Wolpert, eds. (1988); A. J. Wilson (1988); A. M. Zaidi, comp. (1990), listed under "General References."

Plate VIII.C.4: L. Bahadur (1988); Harun-or-Rashid (1987); M. Hasan (1979); A. Jalal (1985); V. V. Nagarkar (1975); D. Page (1982); F. Robinson (1974); F. Shaikh (1989).

Plate VIII.C.5: Harun-or-Rashid (1987); E. Jansson (1981); P. D. Reeves et al. (1975); F. Shaikh (1989).

Plate VIII.C.6: C. Heimsath and S. Mansingh (1971); M. Hau- ner (1981).

Plate VIII.D.1: B. B. Misra (1983).

Addenda and Corrigenda

P. 60, "— ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS, 1857": The small Hindu- ruled princely state of Porbandar is not differentiated from the much larger Muslim-ruled state of Junagarh, just to its east. Both are unnamed but are situated in "Kattywar" (outmoded 1857 spelling, grid square C5). The area of Porbandar should have been shown in blue, not green.

P. 69, "MODERN RELIGIOUS REVIVAL AND REFORM MOVE- MENTS": The still important Swaminarayan sect, founded by Ramanand in the mid-18th century and led by a prominent reformist leader, Sahaja- nand (1780–1829), should have been noted on this map (as it is the map of Hindu sects on p. 93). This movement is discussed in Brady (1984). Concentrated in Gujarat, with headquarters in the town of Lojpur, this sect should have been listed among "Hindu Movements in Bombay Province." A number of additional movements worthy of note are discussed in works cited among the new sources listed above relative to Plate VIII.C.1.

P. 71, "THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, — 1885–1971": Text updating this map is provided below under IX.B.7–11. Elec- tions in India, 1974–91.

IX. Post-Independence Political History INTRODUCTION

In seeking to document South Asian political history in the pe- riod since 1947 we are confronted with an embarrassment of riches and the inevitable difficulty of highlighting what is most signifi- cant without the benefit of the type of historical perspective that comes only with the passage of time. As noted in the Introduction, the exigencies of the publication schedule have precluded our de- picting cartographically as much of this history as one might ide- ally wish. However, we have sought to extend the coverage of various map plates of HASA 1978 up to the year 1990 or to mid- 1991 wherever possible, by appropriate textual notes, tables, and graphs. In particular, we provided detailed, regionally ordered tab- ular or graphic presentations of the results of numerous elections at the national and state/provincial levels held since 1974 and of the social, economic, and political disturbances that continue, in varying degree, to characterize virtually all parts of South Asia. Supplementing the presentations below are the addenda printed on the backs of the three original chronological charts in the end cover pocket of the atlas as well as an overlay map showing administra- tive divisions down to the district level as of 1991, also placed in the end-cover pocket.

New Sources

General References: The Annual register — (1972/73–); Asian recorder (1972–); The encyclopedia of the Indian — (1976–87); The Far East and Australasia (1972–); Keesing's contemporary archives — (1972–87), listed in bibliog. of HASA 1978; Keesing's record — (1987–); S. Lal (1989); P. Peebles (1982); F. Robinson, ed. (1989).

Periodicals and Serials: Far Eastern Economic Review (various years); India Today (1975–); Subaltern Studies (1982–); The Times of India (various years).

Other Published Works: P. R. Brass (1974); J. M. Brown (1985); K. M. De Silva, ed. (1977); B. Fadia (1984); F. R. Frankel and M. S. A. Rao, eds. (1989); J. Jupp (1978); C. P. O'Donnell (1984); L. I. Rudolph and S. Hoeber Rudolph (1987); G. Singh (1988); B. L. Sukhwal (1985); M. Waseem (1989); A. J. Wilson and D. Dalton, eds. (1982); L. Ziring et al. (1977).


At the level of first order administrative subdivisions (states of India, provinces of Sri Lanka, etc.), a number of changes, noted below, have occurred since 1975. At lower administrative levels changes have been far too numerous to document individually. Changes at both levels are mapped on the new end-cover plate IX.A.4.

Afghanistan: Three new provinces, Paktika, Sar-e-Pol, and Nur- istan, were created, but Paktika has since been dissolved. A rele- vant note appears on the new end-cover plate IX.A.4. The dates of the creation and dissolution of Paktika are not known. Sar-e- Pol and Nuristan were established in 1988. We learned of the es- tablishment of Nuristan after completing the drafting of plate IX.A.4 and have no information as to its boundaries. It most likely was constituted from parts of the provinces of Laghman, Konar, and possibly Badakhshan.

Bangladesh: With the implementation in 1984–85 of the decision, taken in 1975, to increase the number of districts in Bangladesh from 19 to 61 (later becoming 69), the intermediate administrative level of "division," of which four already were in existence, took on greater importance.

Bhutan and Nepal: Both countries have established development zones, the boundaries of which are shown on end-cover plate IX.A.4.

India: Sikkim, previously an "associated state" of India, became a state within the Union of India in April 1975. The following union territories were made states (as of the dates in parentheses): Arunachal Pradesh (December 1986); Mizoram (February 1987); Goa (December 1987, from the Goa portion of Goa, Daman, and Diu; Daman and Diu remained a union territory).

Pakistan: Within Pakistan proper no changes are known to have taken place. In the Pakistani-occupied portion of the the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir, however, the Pakistani government declared in April 1982 that the Northern Territories, which Paki- stan had been administering since August 1972, were separate from Azad Kashmir, thereafter designating them the Federally Admin- istered Northern Areas.

Sri Lanka: In September 1988 the merger of the Northern and Eastern Provinces into a single North Eastern Province was autho- rized; the final boundaries of this new province, however, have yet to be negotiated. In April 1982, with the opening of the new parliament building in Kotte, five miles from Colombo, that site, redesignated as Sri Jayawardenapura, became the country's legis- lative and judicial capital; Colombo remains the administrative capital.

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