Journal of Arts & Ideas, no. 32-33 (April 1999) p. 149.

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Ashish Rajadhyaksha

objectified man', in his statement that The liberal argument that the rationality of man must be construed to mean that each human being is the best judge of his own interests and therefore deserved the right to individual autonomy was simply transferred, to the considerable embarrassment of utilitarian theorists, to the national community ... (and meant) primarily the collective freedom of the Indian people from British rule, a translation of the question of liberty entirely, unproblematically, into the question of national sovereignty'. Kaviraj, 'Democracy and Development in India', in Amiya K. Bagchi ^49 ed.. Democracy and Development, NY: St Martin's Press (1995), pp. 92-136.

27. Partha Chatterjee, 'Beyond the Nation? Or Within?', op. cit.

28. Partha Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse, OUP/Zed Books, (1986), p. 30.

29. The following information is drawn mainly from G.N. Sharma's Satellite Communications and Outer Space: Regulatory Aspects, Ahmedabad: Academic Book Centre (1988).

30. In a recent decision, the Cabinet has announced the liberalization of Internet Service Providers (ISPs), until now the monopoly of the Videsh Sanchar Nigam. In Bangalore, the software company Microland has already announced possible tie-ups with some of the major Cable conglomerates like Siticable and InCableNet to provide Internet services independent of the telephone.

31. See, in a related area, Prabhat Patnaik's 'On the Concept of Efficiency', where he mentions a possible and far more practically relevant form of 'efficiency' arising from the 'forced idleness, or involuntary unemployment, of resources', a category not recognized by neo-classical economics in its policy prescriptions. Economic & Political Weekly, 32:43 (Oct 25-31, 1997), p. 2808.

32. William H. Gothmann, Digital Electronics: An Introduction to Theory and Practice, New Delhi: Prentice-Hall (1992).

33. See Timothy Binkley, 'Refiguring Culture', in Philip Hayward/Tana Wollen ed. Future Visions: Neiu Technologies of the Screen, London: BFI (1993).

34. Maj. Gen. Pran Nath, 'Radio Frequency Spectrum: Securing their Rights', The Economic Times, Bombay, Sept 7, 1994.

35. Partha Chatterjee, 'Beyond the Nation? Or Within?', op. cit.

36. Partha Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought and The Colonial World, op. cit., p. 48.

37. Ashish Rajadhyaksha, 'The Phaike Era: Contradictions of Traditional Form and Modern Technology', Journal of Arts 6' Ideas 14-15, July-Dec 1987.

38. Madhava Prasad, 'Signs of Ideological Re-form in Two Recent Films: Towards Real Subsumption?', Journal of Arts & Ideas 29, Jan 1996.

39. Sumita Chakravarty's National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987, University of Texas Press (1993), both covers this area and shows the extent to which this entire argument has been disseminated.

40. Ashish Rajadhyaksha, ^The Epic Melodrama: Themes of Nationality in Indian Cinema', Journal of Arts 6- Ideas 25-26, Dec 1993.

41. An Indian Personality for Television: Report of the Working Group on Software for Doordarshan (Dr. P.C. Joshi Chairman), vol 1, New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting (1985), p. 27.

42. See Ashish Rajadhyaksha, 'Beaming Messages to the Nation', Journal of Arts 6' Ideas 19, May 1990.

43. An exemplary instance characterizing the time was lawyer Indira Jaising's case against Doordarshan, where - protesting against the way her interview to Doordarshan was edited to mean something contrary to her statements - she filed a suit on constitutional, rights of freedom of speech, grounds. See 'The Doordarshan Censorship Case', in Jaising ed., from The Lawyers' Collective 3, July 1988, pp. 14-15.

44. Kumar Shahani, 'Politics and Ideology: The Foundation of Bazaar Realism', in Aruna Vasudev/PhiHppe Lenglet eds. Indian Cinema Superbazaar, New Delhi: Vikas (1983).

45. So Hrishikesh Mukherjee writes, as Chairman of the State-owned National Film Development Corporation, in the 1984 Annual Report of the NFDC, that 'Unhealthy and underhand dealings ... are part of

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