human engineering will solve this fundamental problem unless the means of production are socialised. By doing away with the anarchy of production and the market mechanism, a comprehensive programme of socialisation would pave the way for a rational development of national resources. Dynamic modelling, cybernetics, information theory and feedback systems could be useful tools of planning and management of the national economy. Even when socialisation is not so comprehensive or far-reaching, Mohinder Kumar would like to shift the emphasis from micro to macro management of production. He does not favour "market socialism". Secondly, Mohinder Kumar would like to strip management theories of their "circulation-based nuances". Marketing, sales promotion and public relations are typical activities of capitalist management which subordinate production to the market. Mohinder Kumar regards production for the satisfaction of social needs as the most urgent task. He lays utmost emphasis on ending technological parasitism by purposeful R & D activities and organisation. The mix of technologies developed and chosen should conform to the resource endowments and levels of development. He has also suggested the organisation of technical bodies advising individual units in respect of standardisation of raw material, products as well as methods and means of production. Secrecy about technological innovations is to be discarded. Since the accent of industrial management would shift from market-oriented behaviour to production, materials management, value engineering, inventory control and so on would be helpful in avoiding wastage and cutting down costs. PERT/CPM, operations research etc., could also be used in saving time and optimising the use of scarce resources. Education of workers and their involvement in managerial decisions are also important. Distinctions between physical and mental labour should also be eliminated.
Mohinder Kumar envisages a mixed economy under People's Democracy. Apart from developing capital goods and heavy industries, public sector is expected progressively to take over production and distribution of wage goods. At the same time the state is to exercise social control over private production. One wonders why he has emphasised the need for exposing the malpractices of monopolies and multinational corporations. Does he consider the continuance of monopolies and MNCs necessary under the pattern of economic structure envisaged under People's Democracy?
M J K THAVARAJ
Professor, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi