Social Scientist. v 2, no. 20 (March 1974) p. 55.

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Gurmukh is a true revolutionary. Ishk is the spur which prompts the revolutionary Ranjha to spurn his ancestral land and the 'reactionary9 love of his brothers and sisters-in-law.7 Ishk again, does something to Heer. It repels her from maya-ridden men of property and status. In the words of Kishan Singh, "the real point in the battle of love, the crucial thing in the creation ofWarris Shah, is the transformation brought about in the two lovers by their love."8 Marxian thought is being enriched here with a strange transformation of qualitative nature!

Psychological Change

Kishan Singh reveals to us that ishk emancipates humanity from all the evils of the established order. It liberates man in the first instance:

this freedom leads to the brotherhood and ultimately to the love of mankind. How revolutionary! After adding a few quotations and references to men altering their material production and so forth along with the products of their thinking, we are supposed to take this revelation as Marxian too!

This pattern of thinking discloses the line of spiritualists who admit the reality of matter and material relations, but insist that social change can be brought about through the psychological transformation of man. There is' one difference, of course. Here we have quotations from Marxist thinkers in support of the a priori unscientific assumptions.

All ideas and philosophical tendencies, without exception, have their roots in the material conditions and forces of production. This does not guarantee that all such ideas and tendencies will turn out to be revolutionary. For example, Marxism has never recognized religious or theological strifes as revolutionary. We know from experience that these make for reactionary diversion for the downtrodden from the real issues of life and struggle.

Class struggle, no doubt, is the key to all history. Individuals transforming themselves through subjective psychological incentives do not make or lead revolutions. As a means of liberation, there is no alternative to relentless struggle against the oppressing and exploiting classes and all that they stand for.


1 Kishan Singh, "Warris Shah, Punjabi Poet of Love and Liberation", Social Scientist

Number 12, July 1973, p 32. Ibid., p 33. a Ibid., p 34. 4 Ibid., p 33. s 7W.,p31. e Ibid., p 32. 7 Ibid., p 39. Ibid., p 40. Ibid., p 32.

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