54 SOCIAL SCIENTIST
premise, for instance, is the relatively unvarying and, on the whole, negative attitude of the bourgeois press towards Soviet Union, which has persisted throughout its history, typified by appraisals of the situation in the Soviet Union, especially when Soviet people did encounter serious diffi-culiies.
There are various ways of mitigating the boomerang effect. Propagandists realise that it takes time for propaganda forecast to be refuted or confirmed. In a concrete situation, they organise a propaganda campaign in such a way as to cause the adversary the greatest possible harm, politically and ideologically. Subsequently, propaganda flops are camouflaged by switching attention to some other issue. With the passage of time, propaganda blunders are likely to be forgotten, propaganda is directed at the unsophisticated listener and reader.
Besides switching attention, propaganda also resorts to "propaganda personification", lending a personal character to propaganda efforts serves to shift the responsibility for it from propaganda at large to a concrete individual.
The bourgeosie has now adopted refined methods of manipulating mass thinking and spiritually oppressing people as major instruments in its struggle against socialism and for the preservation of the capitalist system.
V A GAITONDE