Social Scientist. v 2, no. 23 (June 1974) p. 60.

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students by age and their achievements, and finally that it is a hierarchical structure with the student at the bottom and the principal at the top. Similar criticism has been voiced, amongst others, by educationists John Holt and Paul Goodman.

Iliich maintains that the educational system is a paradigm of other industrial modes of production. Therefore these modes suffer from similar shortcomings. This is particularly so for those modes that ostensibly set out to provide a public service. Examples are the transportation system where on certain highways driving below a certain speed is an offence;

the medical profession, where it is compulsory to have a degree from a medical school to practice even though in certain situations such formalized training may not be necessary, etc. According to him :

To formulate a theory about a future society both very modern and not dominated by industry, it will be necessary to recognize certain common illusions. We must recognize that only within limits can machines take the place of slaves; beyond these limits they lead to a new kind of serfdom. Only within limits can education fit people into a man-made environment: beyond these limits lies the universal schoolhouse, hospital ward or prison. 4

This brings Iliich to one of his most fascinating concepts, namely that of watersheds of production. To illustrate his point Iliich considers the history of modern medicine, which he claims is marked by twtf watersheds, one the year 1913 and the other around 1950. About the year 1913 it became more than 50 percent probable that a graduate of a medical school would be able to treat his patient, if he was suffering from one of the documented diseases of the time. The method of the scientific inquiry, namely classification and determination of casual relationships was applied increasingly 10 study diseases and this knowledge made medical science more effective. However, the greatest contribution toward the lengthened life span of man was perhaps by improved sanitation, hygiene, better food, inoculation against common diseases, etc. Yet medical care has, after the 1950's, become a tool to further the economic interests of a profession, namely the doctors. Thib profession will not admit people into it unless they have degrees from medical schools. At the same time doctors in America (through their association, the AMA) regulate the admissions to medical schools. Doctors seem to have become fewer and fewer and proper medical care seems to be available to the rich only.

Another example is the automobile. It seems to have crossed the second watershed, because according lo'lllich, the harm done by it to the environment far exceeds the good done by it. In fact, Iliich estimates that the average speed of a car in America, after including the time spent on maintaining it, is about 6 miles per hour. This incidentally is the speed of the bicycle, which is the most efficient machine in respect of its energy consumption per unit of weight carried over a unit of distance. Consider this in view of the fact that the US spends 23 percent of its grosa

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