Social Scientist. v 1, no. 2 (Sept 1972) p. 4.


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4 SOCIAL SCIENTIST

The title of Dr Raj's address was "Developmental Problems of India and the Methodology of Marx". Our critical note on his address asked : "Whose developmental problems ?9 Those of the ruling classes or of the working people ?" and reminded Dr Raj that "the jcrux of the Marxist outlook is the recognition that what ^leads^ to the 'development5 of the ruling or exploiting classes leads to the paupecrisation of the work-^P60!^."

It was to unravel the truth of this general proposition, we went on,

in relation to a particular stage in the history of human development, the stage of the origin and growth of capitalism, that Marx wrote his monumental work Capital. The painstaking study that he made of all the material that was then available, both on destruction of pre-capitalist the economic formations as well as on the origin and growth of the capitalist economic formation, led Marx to one irresistible conclusion : just as economic formations in country after country had been replaced by other formations earlier and just as capitalism was replacing all the then existing pre-capitalist economic formations in the whole world, so would capitalism be replaced by^pcialism everywhere.

The 'methodology of Marx', lauded by Dr Raj and several other bourgeois scholars, is thus inseparable from the basic class outlook with which Marx made his monumental study, as well as from his conclusion regarding the inevitability of capitalism being replaced by socialism. To quote Engels :

'Science was for Marx a historically dynamic, revolutionary force. However great the joy with which he welcomes a new discovery in some theoretical science whose practical application perhaps it was as yet quite impossible to envisage, he experienced quite another kind of joy when the discovery involved immediate revolutionary dianges in industry and in historical development in general...

^For, Marx was before all else a revolutionist. His real mission in life was to contribute, in one way or another, to the overthrow of capitalist society and of the state institutions which it brought into being, to contribute to the liberation of the modern proletariat, which he was the first to make conscious of its own position and its need, conscious of the conditions of its emancipation. Fighting was his element.5

We may be pardoned in reminding Dr Raj that this is the essence of Marxism as distinct from the 'methodology of Marx9 as understood by him- Dr Raj takes his colleagues in the field of social sciences to task for their failure to have an integrated outlook with which one must study the problems of development. He compares their contributions—'even the most outstanding' among them—to the attempts of the legendary seven blind men to describe the elephant, and adds : 'Whatever the subject—whether it is economic



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