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encouraged violence and does not believe in an omnipotent God. The communists forget that man has a soul/' Economic Weekly, July 1959, p 852.

33 K Padmanabha Pillai, op cit., p 205.

34 The Hindu, 4 June 1957; also, 16 July 1957 and 29 July 1957.

85 The Hindu, 4 July 1957.

36 The Hindu, 14 July and 13 May 1957.

87 Th- Hindu, 13 July 1957 (L M Pylee) and 14 July 1957 (KPCC).

38 The Hindu, 19 July 1957; government press release with copy of the circular. Vadakkan denied later, on 21 July, having called for a crusade or whipping up communal emotions. Also Malayala Rajyam, 19 January 1957, reports the Kurishu-yudham (crusade) call.

39 Kerala Gazette Extraordinary, 24 August 1957.

40 Ibid.

41 Synopsis of the Kerala Legislative Assembly Debates, 20 July 1957. In the final liberation struggle, K P Narayanan even resigned from the executive of the pradesh Congress.

42 Proceedings of the K'evala Legislative Assembly, 20 July 1957, p 2232. 4^ P P Ummer Koya, in synopsis of Assembly Debates 13 August 1957.

44 P T Chacko, in synopsis of Assembly Debates, 13 August 57.

45 Proceeding, 20 July, 1957, p 2268.

46 See, among others, the statements by C A Mathew, K C Abraham, Alexander Parambithara, and K M George during the debates in July.

47 Four days before the bill was finally accepted in its third reading, E P Poulose had the audacity to ask for the deletion of the clause on direct payment of wages to teachers, for "it may be argued that the right to administer schools has been curtailed", whereupon law minister Krishna Aiyar reacted: "Clause 9 here undoubtedly has made most unhappy the 'holy men' in charge of'our educational institutions and brought a hopeful smile of the hungry pedagogues working in those institutions." {Proceedings, 26 November 1958).

48 Malaviya, p 34 ff, and stray copies of The Times of India and Indian Express. The Hindu gave also qualified support, though sometimes more critical as for instance in the editorial of 17 July 1957, quoting Archbishop Mathias: "The teachers may benefit financially but the final result will be iron control ... and politics will enter..." Also, Hindustan Standard, 10 July 1957, advanced the argument that "thousands of different communities from the lowest untouchables to the highest Brahmins had their schooling in Christian institutions".

49 Malayala Rajyam, 29 July 1957, reporting from Kozhikode 5 The Hindu, 17 July 1957.

51 Malayala Rajyam, 21 July 1957.

52 Synopsis of the Kerala Legislative Assembly Debates, 13 July 1957.

53 Ibid. (P M Kunhiraman Nair)

54 See The Hindu, 31 August 1957 and 3 September 1957, for resignation of CC Jayawardhanan and K A Thomas. Compare also report of 25 August 1957 about the inner-party row in the select committee. The National General Council was not in favour of the agitation (The Weekly Kerala, 19 October 1957). Some local non-Christian leaders, however, also joined the movement.

55 V K S Nayar, op cit. The author mentions that the communist government in a

sense was welcomed by the NSS "because the Syrian Christians had practically no

influence over it." (p 180). 6 Malayala Rajyam, 15 July 1957. 07 Desabandhu, 28 August 1957, quoted in Government of Kerala, The Agitation in

Kerala, p 3.

^ V K S Nayar, op cit., p 183. 59 Alwaye Study Conference, 1957, The Communist Rule in Kerala and Christian

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