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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 437.


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XI] VERNACULAR LITERATURE 437
of Sanslcrit. Besides treatises on poetics, rhetoric, and gram-
mar, it includes sectarian works of Jains, Lingayats, Saivas, and
Vaishnavas. Those of the Lingayats appear to possess most
originality. Their list includes several episodes of a Basava
Purana, in glorification of a certain Basava who is said to have
been an incarnation of giva's bull Nandi. There is also an
admired Ćataka of S6meSvara. Modern Kanarese has a large
number of particularly racy folk-ballads, some of which have
been translated into English by Mlr. Fleet. One of the most
amusing echoes the cry of the long-suffering income-tax payer,
and tells with considerable humour how the 'virtuous' mer-
chants carefully understate their incomes.
The earliest surviving writings of Telugu authors date from Telugu
the twelfth century, and include a Mahabhdrata by Nannappa; literature.
but the most important works belong to the fourteenth and
subsequent centuries. In the beginning of the sixteenth cen-
tury the court of Krishna RTya of Vijayanagar was famous for
its learning, and several branches of literature were enthusiasti-
cally cultivated. Allasani Peddana, his laureate, is called 'the
Grandsire of Telugu poetry,' and was the pioneer of original
poetical composition in the language, other writers having con-
tented themselves with translating from Sanskrit. His best-
known work is the Svarjhcisha-Afanucharitra, which is based
on an episode in the l-Mdrkarnady)a Purltna. Krishna Raya him-
self is said to have written the Amuktamadyada. Another
member of his court was Nandi Timmana, the author of the
Pdridjatpaharatna. Surana (flourished I560) was the author of
the Kaldprf.rnidaya, which is an admired original tale of the
loves of Nalakfubara and Kalabhbshini, and of many other works.
The most important writer was, however, Tcmana (sixteenth
century), the poet of the people. He wrote in the colloquial
dialect, and directed his satires chiefly against caste distinctions
and the fair sex. He is to-day the most popular of all Telugu
authors, and there is hardly a proverb or a pithy saying which
is not attributed to him.
Only a few lines can be devoted to the Indian Tibeto-
Chinese languages. The huge literature of Tibetan is ex-
cluded from consideration as not being directly concerned
with British India, and there remain those of Burmese and of
the Tai languages. In both cases the poetic diction differs so
widely from the speech of common life as to be unintelligible
without special study. Burmese literature is almost wholly Burmese
secular, religious works being written in Pali, the sacred lan- literature.
guage of the Buddhists. The main forms which this secular



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