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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 5, p. 376.

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be Rajputs. Angul had the same history as its neighbours, at one time
warring successfully and gaining a few villages, at another time warring
unsuccessfully and losing a few; and while in the Orissa delta in these
early times a great civilization waxed and waned, the Hill Tracts re-
mained practically barbarous and untouched by outside influences. The
old chiefs all acknowledged allegiance to the Puri Raja; and, when the
East India Company took over the territories, the hill Rajas received
sanads and agreed to pay tribute, Angul's annual contribution being
fixed at Rs. 1,650. In I846 the Raja was one Somnath Singh, who
early acquired an evil reputation as an oppressor among his own people
and a filibuster among his neighbours. The friction between him and
the Government originated in the Khondmals, where he assisted rebel-
lions of the Khonds in 1846 and I847. In the latter year, moreover,
a body of paiks from Angul crossed the Mahanadi and destroyed two
villages belonging to the Raja of Daspalla. The Raja of Angul was
summoned to Cuttack to explain his conduct, but he refused to come;
and in December, 1847, Government issued a proclamation annexing
Angul, and a force of three regiments of infantry, a battery of artillery,
and a squadron of irregular cavalry invaded the country from Ganjam,
in co-operation with a smaller force from the Central Provinces. The
country was occupied practically without a blow, and the Raja was
imprisoned for life at Hazaribdgh. Angul was administered by a tah-
sildcir (or revenue collector) under the Superintendent of the Orissa
Tributary Mahals until I891, when it was made a separate District, the
Khondmals being added to it.
The Khondmals were originally a part of Baud Tributary State;
but the Khonds were practically independent, and the Raja was quite
unable to control them. Matters came to a climax when the British
Government determined to put down the practice of human sacrifice
among the Khonds. In 1835 the Raja of Baud agreed to make
over the tract occupied by them. It was at first administered
by the Madras Government, which had created a special Agency
for the purpose of suppressing human sacrifice among the Khonds
across the Ganjam border. The Baud Khonds gave considerable
trouble before their sacrifices were finally suppressed, and a formidable
rising took place in 1847. They finally settled down, however, and in
1855 the administration of their country was transferred to Cuttack.
A tahsilddr held charge of the tract until 189r, when it was formed
into a subdivision of Angul District.
The population of Angul, including the Khondmals, increased from
Population. 130,84 in 1872 to 160,86i in IS8I, to I70,058
in 1891, and to I91,9II in I901. The principal
statistics of the Census of I90o are shown in the table on next page.
Only one of the villages, ANGUL, the head-quarters, has more than

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