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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 6, p. 122.

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between 20 26' and 20 41' N., and 84 32' and 85 52' E., with an
area of I68 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the State of
Dhenkanal; on the east and south by Cuttack District; and on the west
by the States of Tigiria and Dhenkanal. The country is level, low-lying,
and very subject to inundation. The soil is fertile, and the cultivation
consists chiefly of rice, with an occasional crop of sugar-cane, pulses,
and millets.
The founder of the State was Sri Karan Niladri Bawarta Patnaik, who
belonged to the Karan caste. It is said that he was the Bawarta or
minister of the Purl Raja, who conferred on him the title of Raja and
gave him Athgarh as a reward for his services, or, according to another
account, as a dowry on marrying the Raja's sister. The present chief,
Sri Karan Biswanath Bawarta Patnaik, is the thirteenth in descent.
The State has an estimated revenue of Rs. 5o,ooo, and pays a tribute of
Rs. 2,800 to the British Government. The population increased from
36,603 in I89r to 43,784 in I901; of the latter number all but 2,643
are Hindus. The most numerous castes are the Chasas (o,0ooo),
Sahars (6,ooo), and Khandaits and Pans (5,000 each). The average
density is 260 persons per square mile. The number of villages is 192,
of which the principal is Athgarh, the residence of the Raja. A small
Christian colony is settled in three hamlets near Chagan village. The
State is traversed by the old high road from Cuttack to Sambalpur and
by the newly opened Cuttack-Angul-Sambalpur road. The Mahanadi
river, which runs along the southern boundary, is navigable by boats.
There is some trade in grain, and fuel and charcoal are largely exported
to Cuttack. The State maintains a charitable dispensary, a middle
English school, an upper primary school, 75 lower primary schools, and
one Sanskrit tot.
Athmallik.-One of the Tributary States of Orissa, Bengal, lying
between 20 37' and 2I 5' N. and 84 16' and 84 48' E., with an area
of 730 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the State of Raira-
khol; on the east by Angul District; on the south by the Mahanadi
river, which separates it from Baud; and on the west by Sonpur and
Rairakhol. The country is for the most part covered with dense jungle,
and a long range of forest-clad hills runs along its southern side parallel
with the course of the Mahanadi. The origin of the State is obscure.
According to tradition, the founder of the family, Pratap Deo, came to
Purl and quarrelled with the Raja, who put to death two of his seven
brothers. The survivors fled to Bonai, and established themselves there.
Pratap Deo next proceeded to Baud and thence to Athmallik, of which
he took possession after killing the Dom chief. Official records, how-
ever, show that till lately the State had no separate existence, and in the
treaty engagement of 1804 it is mentioned as a tributary of Baud. It
was treated as a separate State in the sanad granted to the chief in 1894,

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