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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 7, p. 94.

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Basarh.--Village in the Hajipur subdivision of Muzaffarpur District,
Bengal, situated in 25° 59′ N. and 85° 8′ E. Population (1901), 3,527.
Basarh is identified with the capital of the ancient kingdom of Vaisali.
In the sixth century B.C. a confederacy of the Lichchavis was pre-
dominant here, and was able to prevent the kingdom of Magadha from
expanding on the north bank of the Ganges. Vaisali was a great
stronghold of Buddhism, and Gautama visited it three times during his
life. Here was held the second Buddhist council which had so great
an effect in splitting up the Buddhists into the Northern and Southern
sects. The town was visited by Fa Hian and Hiuen Tsiang; the latter
found it in ruins. The principal antiquarian feature of the place is
a large brick-covered mound, measuring I,580 feet by 750 and repre-
senting the remains of a vast fort or palace. In the neighbourhood
is a huge stone pillar surmounted with the figure of a lion. This
monolith, though locally known as Bhim Singh's ldth, appears clearly
to be one of the pillars erected by Asoka to mark the stages of the
journey to Nepal which he undertook in order to visit some of the holy
sites of Buddhism. It bears no inscription, but can be identified with
one of the Asoka pillars mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang at the site of
ancient Vaisali.
[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xvi, pp. 89-93 ; and Reports of the
Archaeological Surveyor, Bengal Circle, for 1901-2 and 1903-4.]
Basavapatna.-Deserted town in the Channagiri taluk of Shimoga
District, Mysore, situated in 14° 12′ N. and 75° 49′ E., i6 miles from
Channagiri town. It lies in a narrow valley enclosed by hills, and was
the original seat of the chiefs who, when Basavapatna was taken
by the Bijapur army in the invasion of I637, retired to Tarikere,
and are commonly identified with the former place. It was the seat of
government for this part of the country under Bijapur rule, and under
the Mughals afterwards. Later it changed hands several times, and was
held by the Marathas for seven years. Haidar All dismantled the fort
in I763, and the Marathas under Parasuram Bhao sacked the town
in 1791. The fort was repaired in I799, but the place never recovered
its former prosperity. Near the fort was a mosque where Baba Budan
lived before he settled on the mountain called after him.
Bashahr.-One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab, lying between
31° 6′ and 32° 5′ N. and 77° 32′ and 79° 4′ E., with an area of 3,820
square miles. Population (1901), 80,582. Number of villages, 70.
Between 1803 and 1815 Bashahr was held in subjection by the con-
quering Gurkhas. On the overthrow of the Gurkha power in 1815, the
British Government confirmed the Raja of Bashahr, by a sanad, in
possession of all his territories, subject to the payment of a tribute of
Rs. 22,500. In I847 the tribute was reduced to Rs. 5,910, as com-
pensation for the abolition of transit duties. The present Raja, Sham-

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