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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 8, p. 251.

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Provinces, situated in z6 37' N. and 8o r6' E., near the Ganges, on
a branch line of the Cawnpore-Achhner Railway. Population (rgor),
7,T73. The Hindus believe that Brahma celebrated the completion of the
creation of the world by a horse sacrifice at this place. A great bathing-
fair takes place annually in November at the Brahmavartaghdt. Early in
the nineteenth century the civil head-quarters of the District were for
a time at BithCir. Baji Rao, the last of the Peshwas, was banished to Bithr
and bad extensive palaces in the town. His adopted son, Dundu Pant,
better known as the Nana Sahib, was the instigator of the massacre at
CAWNPORF, in 1857. The town was captured by Havelock's forces on
July 1q, when the palaces were utterly destroyed ; but the Nana suc-
ceeded in making good his escape. In the neighbourhood of Bithr
some prehistoric copper arrow-heads and hatchets have been found. The
town is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about
Rs. z,ooo. There is a primary school with 70 pupils.
Black Mountain.-A mountain range on the north-western border
of Hazara District, North-West Frontier Province, lying between 34 32'
and 34 s N. and 72 48' and 7z 58' E. Bounded on the east by
Agror and on the south by Tanwal, the range has a length of 25 to
30 miles from north to south and an elevation of 8,ooo feet above sea
level. The Indus washes its northern extremity and thence turns due
south. Between the river and the crest of the range the western slopes
are occupied by Ysufzai Pathans. The rest of the range is held by
Swatis, or tribes who have been gradually driven from Swat by the
Ysufzai. The Black Mountain forms a long, narrow ridge, with higher
peaks at intervals and occasional deep passes. Numerous spurs pro-
ject from its sides, forming narrow gorges in which lie the villages of
the tribes. The upper parts of the ridge and spurs are covered with
thick forests of pine, oak, sycamore, horse-chestnut, and wild cherry;
but the slopes are stony and barren. In 1851 the Hasanzai sept of the
Ysufzai murdered two officers of the British Customs (Salt) depart-
ment within the borders of Tanawal. Punishment for this outrage was
inflicted by an expedition under Colonel Mackeson, which destroyed
a number of tribal strongholds. In 1868 the Ysufzai, instigated by the
Khan of Agror, who resented the establishment of the police post at
Oghi in the Agror valley, attacked that post in force, but were repulsed. .
Further attacks on the troops of the Khan of Tandwal, who remained
loyal, followed, and soon culminated in a general advance of the Black
Mountain tribes against the British position. This was repulsed, but
not until twenty-one British villages had been burnt, and a second expe-
dition under General Wilde had overrun the Black Mountain and
secured the full submission of the tribes. In consequence of raids
committed in the Agror valley by the Hasanzai and Akazai aided by
the Madda Khel, a blockade was commenced in the year 1888. While
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