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Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 9, p. 301.

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Cardamom Hills are provided with civil and criminal courts, police
stations, post offices, hospitals, telegraphic and telephonic lines,
schools, &c.
Carnatic (Kannada, Karnâta, Karnâtaka•desa).-Properly, as the
name implies, `the Kanarese country.' The name has, however, been
erroneously applied by modern European writers to the Tamil country
of Madras, including the Telugu llistrict of Nellore. The boundaries
of the true Carnatic, or Karnâtaka-desa, are given by Wilks as
`Commencing near the town of Bidar, r8° 45' N., about 6o miles
north-west from Hyderâbâd (Deccan). Following the course of the
Kanarese language to the south-east, it is found to be limited by a
waving line which nearly touches Adoni, winds to the west of Gooty,
skirts the town of Anantapur, and passing througYz Nandidroog,
touches the rangé of the Eastern Ghâts ; thence pursuing their southern
course to the mountainous pass of Gazzalhati, it continues to follow
the abrupt turn caused by the great chasm of the western hills between
the towns of Coimbatore, Pollâchi, and Pâlghât; and, sweeping to the
north-west, skirts the edges of the precipitous Western Ghâts, nearly
as far north as the sources of the Kistna; whence following first an
eastern and afterwards a north-eastern course, it terminates in rather
an acute angle near Bidar, already described as its northern limit.'
T his country has been ruled wholly or in part by many dynasties,
of whom the Andhras or Sâtavâhanas, the Kadambas, the Pallavas,
the Gangas, the Châlukyas, the Râshtrakűtas, the Cholas, the later
Châlukyas, the Iloysalas, and the house of Vijayanagar are the most
prominent. The Vijayanagar kings, who came into power about the
year x336, conquered the whole of the peninsula south of the Tunga-
bhadra river. 'They were completely overthrown by the Muhammadans
in r565, and retired first to Penukonda, and then to Chandragiri, one
branch of the family remaining at Anagundi opposite to their old
capital. It was these conquests that probably led to the extension
of the term ` Carnatic' to the southern plain country ; and this latter
region came to be called Karnâta Pâyânghât, or ` lowlands,' to dis
tinguish it from Karnâta Bâlâghât, or the ` hill country.' When the
1VIuhammadan kings of the I~eccan ousted the Vijayanagar dynasty,
they divided the north of the Vijayanagar country between them into
Carnatic Hyderâbâd (or (iolconda) and Carnatic Bijâpur, each being
further subdivided into Pâyânghât and Bâlâghât. At this time, accord-
ing to Wilks, the northern boundary of Karnâta (Carnatic) was the
Speaking of this period and the modern misapplication of the
name, Bishop Caldwell says (Grammar of the Dravidian Lana~ages,
pP~ 34-5) •-

`The term Karnâta or Karnâtaha is said to have been a generic
term, including both the Telugu and Kanarese peoples and their
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